Psychology: An Introduction

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Chapter One: Introduction to Psychology. Psyche Science = Psychology. Psyche:- Aristotle used the term psyche to refer tothe essence of life- means mind" in Greek- emphasis on observation is basis formethods of contemporary science. Psyche Science = Psychology (cont.). Psycholog

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Psychology: An Introduction

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1. Psychology: An Introduction Benjamin Lahey 10th Edition Slides by Kimberly Foreman

2. Chapter One: Introduction to Psychology

3. Psyche + Science = Psychology Psyche: - Aristotle used the term psyche to refer to the essence of life - means “mind” in Greek - emphasis on observation is basis for methods of contemporary science

4. Psyche + Science = Psychology (cont.) Psychology: science of behavior and mental processes - behavior: - overt actions that others can directly observe - mental processes: private thoughts, emotions, feelings and motives that cannot be directly observed

5. Psyche + Science = Psychology (cont.) Goals of psychology: describe predict understand influence

6. Founding the Science of Psychology Nature of conscious experience: - structuralism: - Wilhelm Wundt - Edward Titchener: - basic elements of conscious experience - introspection - J. Henry Alston: - sensations of hot and cold

7. Founding the Science of Psychology (cont.)

8. Founding the Science of Psychology (cont.) Nature of conscious experience (cont.): - Gestalt psychology: - Max Wertheimer: - the whole is different from the sum of the parts - phi phenomenon

9. Founding the Science of Psychology (cont.) Functions of the conscious mind: - functionalism: - William James: - conscious mind helps us survive as a species - functions of the mind

10. Founding the Science of Psychology (cont.) Functions of the conscious mind (cont.): - studies of memory: - Hermann Ebbinghaus: - experiments called nonsense syllables - Mary Whiton Calkins: - paired associates method

11. Founding the Science of Psychology (cont.) Functions of the conscious mind (cont.): cognitive psychology: perceiving, believing, thinking, remembering knowing, deciding, etc. - modern version of functionalism - influenced by Gestalt psychology

12. Founding the Science of Psychology (cont.) Behaviorism and social learning theory: - behaviorism: - Ivan Pavlov: - classical conditioning - John B. Watson - Margaret Floy Washburn

13. Founding the Science of Psychology (cont.) Behaviorism and social learning theory (cont.): - social learning theory: - Albert Bandura: - most important aspects of our behavior are learned from other persons in society

14. Founding the Science of Psychology (cont.) Nature of the “unconscious mind”: - psychoanalysis: - Sigmund Freud: - unconscious mind - emotional conflicts - motives: - sexual - aggressive

15. Founding the Science of Psychology (cont.) Nature of the “Unconscious Mind” (cont.): - humanistic psychology: - Abraham Maslow - Carl Rogers - Viktor Frankl: - self-concept

16. Founding the Science of Psychology (cont.) Psychometrics: Alfred Binet: - measurement of mental functions - Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

17. Founding the Science of Psychology (cont.) Neuroscience perspective: - structures of the brain that play roles in: - emotion - reasoning - speaking - other psychological processes - heredity

18. Contemporary Perspectives and Specialty Areas in Psychology Sociocultural perspective: derived from social anthropology cultural relativity diversity

19. Contemporary Perspectives and Specialty Areas in Psychology (cont.) Basic areas of modern psychology: - biological psychology - sensation and perception - learning and memory - cognition - developmental psychology - motivation and emotion - personality - social psychology - sociocultural psychology

20. Contemporary Perspectives and Specialty Areas in Psychology (cont.) Applied areas of modern psychology: - clinical psychology - counseling psychology - educational and school psychology - industrial and organizational psychology - health psychology

21. Contemporary Perspectives and Specialty Areas in Psychology (cont.) Relationship between psychiatry and psychology: - psychiatrists: - M.D. - can prescribe drugs - psychologists: - Ph.D or Psy.D - not licensed to prescribe drugs in most states

22. What We Know about Human Behavior Human beings are biological creatures. Every person is different, yet each is much the same. People can be understood fully only in the context of their cultures and other social influences.

23. What We Know about Human Behavior (cont.) Human lives are a continuous process of change. Behavior is motivated. Humans are social animals. People play an active part in creating their experiences. Behavior can be adaptive or maladaptive.

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