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Extinction of Conditioned Behavior. Effects of Extinction Extinction and Original Learning Paradoxical Effects in Extinction. Effects of Extinction. Extinction involves omitting the US or reinforcer. CS alone, no US. R alone, no outcome.

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Extinction of conditioned behavior
Extinction of Conditioned Behavior

  • Effects of Extinction

  • Extinction and Original Learning

  • Paradoxical Effects in Extinction


Effects of Extinction

Extinction involves omitting the US or reinforcer

  • CS alone, no US

  • R alone, no outcome

Two main effects of extinction procedures on behavior

  • responding decreases

  • response variability increases


Extinction and original learning
Extinction and Original Learning

  • Spontaneous Recovery

  • Rapid Reacquisition

  • Renewal

  • Reinstatement


Spontaneous Recovery

Extinction 1

Extinction 2

Acquisition

Wait

Test

CS1 – US

CS2 – US

CS1 – noth

CS2 – noth

CS1 ?

CS2 ?

2 weeks

Longer wait after extinction, more spontaneous recovery


Spontaneous recovery
Spontaneous Recovery

Shows importance of passage of time


Rapid reacquisition
Rapid Reacquisition

  • Re-acquisition after extinction is normally quite rapid.

    • So, the original learning was preserved somewhere although there was no performance


Renewal

CS Test

Pairings

Extinction

1. Context A

Context A

2. Context B

Context A

3. No Extinction

A return to the context of acquisition after extinction of the CR

in a different context causes CR recovery (ABA renewal)



Mechanisms
Mechanisms

  • Subjects turn to the context to disambiguate the meaning of the CS

    • CS->US in acquisition (A)

    • CS->no US in extinction (B)

  • Inhibitory association is specific to Context B?

    • A change in context after extinction of the CR causes CR recovery (ABA renewal)

    • ABC causes renewal, which suggests a return to Context A is not necessary

    • AAB renewal

    • ABC renewal is normally weaker than ABA renewal, so a return to the context of acquisition may play some role


Reinstatement

US alone then CS

Pairings

Extinction

Context A1

Context A2

Context A1

A return of contextual excitation reinstates the extinguished CR

Context A1= US present sessions

Context A2= US absent sessions


Lindblom-Jenkins Effect

Unpaired

CS and US

CS Alone

Pairings

Context A

Context B

Context A

Removal of unsignaled USs present only in extinction

causes recovery of the CR



Erasure and reconsolidation
Erasure and Reconsolidation

  • Expose subject to already “CS” for one trial

  • While subject is thinking about the “CS” and its associated “US”, give them a memory erasure drug, MK501.

Memory Erasure


Extinction paradox
Extinction Paradox

  • Stronger Learning ≠ Slower Extinction

  • Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect or PREE


Acquisition with differing percentage schedules
Acquisition with Differing Percentage Schedules

100%

80/50/30%

Speed

Day


Extinction with differing percentage schedules
Extinction with DifferingPercentage Schedules

Speed

80% 50% 30%

100%

Day


Explanations
Explanations

Mowrer-Bitterman Discrimination Hypothesis

Amsel’s Frustration Theory (Emotional)

Capaldi’s Sequential Theory (Cognitive)



Extinction experiment
Extinction Experiment

Speed

G3, G4 50%

G1, G2 100%

Extinction Trials



Amsel s frustration theory1
Amsel’s Frustration Theory

100% Reinforcement Group


Amsel s frustration theory2
Amsel’s Frustration Theory

50% Reinforcement Group


Amsel extinction data
Amsel (extinction data)

Speed

100% 50%

Extinction Trials


Amsel
Amsel

PREE

Reversed

PREE


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