Comparative and Differential Aging. Chapter 3. Figure 3.2 : Comparison of the relationship of brain weight to life span in vertebrates. Figure 3.1 : Comparative Maximum Life Spans. **Detailed discussion of figure in the legend, pg. 26.
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Comparative and Differential Aging
Figure 3.2: Comparison of the relationship of brain weight to life span in vertebrates
Figure 3.1: Comparative Maximum Life Spans
**Detailed discussion of figure in the legend, pg. 26
Drawing of Great Basin Bristlecone Pine (Pinus longaeva). According to dendrochronologists, these trees have been been documented to live up to 5000 years.
Figure 3.3: The heterogeneity of the elderly population as illustrated by scores in a hypothetical test.
YOUNG OLD: 65-75 years
OLD: 75-85 years
OLD OLD: 85+ years
CENTENARIANS: 100+ years
Examples of ways in which the environment may influence the genome
Dutch Hunger Winter (World War II): Pregnant mothers gave birth to: - low-weight babies who
- when adult showed a greater incidence of diabetes,
obesity, coronary heart disease (CHD), cancer
- grandchildren of these mothers also inherited the same health problems
- pups plus diet had brown fur and good health
- pups without diet had increased susceptibility to diabetes
2 week lifespan
Among invertebrates, the most used models have been the fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and the nematode (C. elegans)
Suppression of the receptor for insulin/IGF hormone will produce a mutant nematode that will live 6x longer than corresponding controls and be more resistant to all stress.
Examples of ways in which environment influences the genome (cont.)
Resistance to stress;
Mechanisms of action
Growth, Development, Metabolism
Suppression of IGF-1 receptor in mice (mammals) produces mutants that live longer than controls and resist stress better.
(less than invertebrates)
All Normal: growth, food intake, physical activity, development, reproduction, basal metabolism
Resistance to stress Serum IGF-1
Mechanisms of action
Tolerance to glucose, tissue IGF-1
(with delayed aging)
Metabolism Protection against insulin resistance
Sensitivity to insulin
Fat mass Obesity protection Insulin/IGF-1 pathways Free radical accumulation
Rodents deficient in GH,GH-R, PL, TSH
IGF-1 Insulin Postnatal growth Body size Food intake Blood glucose levels Puberty Reproduction
Figure 2.3: Common causes of death by age in the United States
(also look 3.7)
Pathology: abnormal function leading to disease
** Disease of
Recent approaches challenge the inevitability of functionpathology by grouping the aging processes into three categories:
Physiological age depends on
Physiologic competence: good to optimal function of all body systems
Health status: absence of disease
Physiological age may or may not coincide with chronological age
**See Table 3.2**
Secrets to Long Life