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Ch. 12 Motivation. Defined – the desire to satisfy an unmet need. Expectations? Self-Fulfilling Prophecy? Performance equation? Content/Process/Reinforcement theories. Content theories A. Maslow’s Hierarchy. physiological, safety, social, esteem, self-actualization

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Content theoriesA. Maslow’s Hierarchy

  • physiological, safety, social, esteem, self-actualization

  • use motivators that satisfy the next level need

  • once lower level needs are satisfied, they lose their motivating potential

  • implications: satisfy lower level needs so upper level needs are motivating. How do you know what needs are unmet? Survey


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  • How to satisfy physiological?

    • AT&T gave money to childcare centers and gets first priority for its workers

  • How to satisfy safety?

    • IBM, Honeywell, Advanced Micro all wrote no layoff policies. Now they can address other needs. Xerox dealt with union to give job security, but reductions in salary. Delivery people (postmen/fedex/pizza drivers) are suffering violence: In one year there were 213 problems for postmen; Fedex employee killed, pizza deliverers reporting increases in assault.


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  • How to satisfy social (sense of belonging)?

    • Use teams, picnics

  • How to satisfy esteem?

    • Perks of success (status, office, decision making) or simply a sense of self-efficacy. Unocal does creativity week for R&D folks for recognition. United Electric Controls uses valued employee program wherein they receive dollars for implemented idea.

  • How to safisfy self-actualization?

    • Opportunity to grow. Training?


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B. Herzberg’ Theory

  • Theory names:

    1. Motivation-hygiene theory

    2. Two-factor theory


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  • Hygiene = salary/supervision/working conditions/policies makes them feel really good about their jobs and what makes them feel bad about their jobs. He came up with two groups: motivators (intrinsic factors) and hygiene factors (extrinsic factors).

  • Motivators= characteristics of the work/advancement/responsibility/achievement

  • Then he came up with a perspective not previously considered:

    • Motivators can lead to satisfaction, but hygiene factors can only prevent dissatisfaction.

    • Thus, satisfaction is distinct from dissatisfaction:


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  • hygiene factors present makes them feel really good about their jobs and what makes them feel bad about their jobs. He came up with two groups: motivators (intrinsic factors) and hygiene factors (extrinsic factors).  no dissatisfaction  no grievance (or motivation)

  • hygiene factors not present  dissatisfaction  grievance

  • motivators present  satisfaction  motivated behavior

  • motivators not present  no satisfaction  no motivated behavior


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Implication: makes them feel really good about their jobs and what makes them feel bad about their jobs. He came up with two groups: motivators (intrinsic factors) and hygiene factors (extrinsic factors). ensure the presence of motivators in order to enhance aroused, energized, goal-directed behavior


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C. McClelland’s Needs Theory (Acquired Needs Theory) makes them feel really good about their jobs and what makes them feel bad about their jobs. He came up with two groups: motivators (intrinsic factors) and hygiene factors (extrinsic factors).

  • 3-Needs Theory.

  • What are the 3 needs?

    • Need for achievement (desire to carry work to successful completion)

    • Need for Power (desire to influence others)

    • Need for Affiliation (desire to help others)


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  • Research found that makes them feel really good about their jobs and what makes them feel bad about their jobs. He came up with two groups: motivators (intrinsic factors) and hygiene factors (extrinsic factors).

    • salesmen high in NAch sold more policies than those low in NAch.

    • at Pepsi, high NAch led to more success than high NPowr. In general, the best managers are high in the NPowr and low in NAff.

  • Implications: address those individual needs that are most motivating for individuals.


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II. Process Theories makes them feel really good about their jobs and what makes them feel bad about their jobs. He came up with two groups: motivators (intrinsic factors) and hygiene factors (extrinsic factors). A. Equity Theory


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  • Derived from cognitive dissonance makes them feel really good about their jobs and what makes them feel bad about their jobs. He came up with two groups: motivators (intrinsic factors) and hygiene factors (extrinsic factors).

    - What’s this?

    Inconsistency between my beliefs/feelings and behaviors.

  • Unfairness (inequity perceptions)  cognitive dissonance  motivation to correct

  • How is equity perceived?

    - By comparison to others

    You Other

  • outcomesoutcomessalary, benefits, status, time off

  • inputs inputs effort, educ, training, exp.


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  • What are some methods to reduce inequity perceptions? makes them feel really good about their jobs and what makes them feel bad about their jobs. He came up with two groups: motivators (intrinsic factors) and hygiene factors (extrinsic factors).

    Increase/reduce inputs

    Increase/reduce outcomes

    Distort inputs/outcomes of self/other

    Change relevant other


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B. Goal Setting changes led to effort changes

  • Difficult goals  increased performance up to a point (need to be achievable)

  • Specific goals  increased performance

  • Feedback following goals  increased performance

  • Participatively set goals  increased performance

  • Implications: establish goal setting procedures e.g. MBO!


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C. Expectancy Theory changes led to effort changes


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  • - Expectancy (E-P link) changes led to effort changes

    Motorola people get 40 hours training/year;

    Anderson consulting gives new employees 3 weeks of professional training prior to starting their jobs. After this, 138 hours per year!

  • Instrumentality (P-O link)

    Diamond International surveyed and found that employees were not rewarded for doing a good job. They instituted the 100 Club to reward certain levels of performance. Productivity boosted 14.2%!

  • Valence; (V – attractiveness)


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  • What are the implications? changes led to effort changes

    1. give employees appropriate training and encouragement;

    2. communicate credible link between performance and outcome;

    3. individual differences must be considered.


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D. Reinforcement Theory changes led to effort changes


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Team Training changes led to effort changes

  • What are objectives and why?

  • Objective are: learning training for you and your team, conveying relevant concepts, retain attention

  • Today’s exercise was practice (limit cards)

  • Can use prior classes as a resource

  • 30-35 minutes

  • Feedback from class


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