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Part 2. İnterpersonal Communication. İntrprsnl communication involves a. interaction between two persons . Q: Is it nercessary to have at least two people for any communication ? . interaction between two persons . b. Use of natural and / or technological means of communication.

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Part 2



a. interactionbetweentwopersons.

Q: Is it nercessarytohave at leasttwopeopleforanycommunication?


b. Use of




of communication

c. DifferingormatchingGoals, interestsandneeds

d. Powerrelations

e.g.: betweenmasterandslave; betweenbossandworker; betweensellersandbuyers;


e. Organizedplace

Place is socially, politically, culturallyand/oreconomicallyorganized.

Socialorganization of place:




Q: Is publicspaceorganized?

Is a mountainorganized?

Publicspace is organizedbythestate:

There is no freepublicspacewhere in people can freelyexpressthemselvesand do things as theywish.

Publicspace is culturally, economically, andpoliticalorganized. Youcannot do anythingypouwant.

f. Organized time (andalsospace/place)

1. Sociallyorganized in general:

e.g. Organization of time accordingtominutes, hours, daysandweeks (Whatkind of organized time is “work time? Who can organizes it? Who can not?

THEN, is sociallyorganized time “organizedby “socialentity as a whole?

Can you organize a spacefor a socialactivity?

2. Politicallyorganized:

e.g., election time andplace, voting time andplace, campaign time andplace, demonstration time andplace.

Can you as an individual organize a time (orspace) politically? Outcome of it?

f. Organized time

3. Culturallyorganized: Festivals, specialdays, holidays

(Is culturalorganizatonindependentfromothers?)

Can you organize a time andspacefor a culturalactivity?

f. Organized time

4. Economicallyorganized time (andspace): organizingworking time andplace

Can you as an individual (not as, e.g., a manager) organize a time andspacefor an economicalactivity?

f. Organized time

5. Personallyorganized time andspace

Whatarethedeterminingconditons of organizaton of time bysomeone/you?


May be:

  • Technologicallymediatedorunmediated

  • Nowordelayed

  • Informalorformal

  • Friendlyor not

Whoandwherearepersons in interpersonalCommunication?


Youandothers as friend, parents, child, student, boss, worker, manager, soldier, policeer.


At home, school, workplace, street, mall, cinema, stadium

Alwayskeep in mindthat



someorganized time andplace





You do not live in a vacuum

as an independentandfreeagent/entity:

You can not liveandact as youwish.

Youlive in a societywhich is organizedaccordingtopowerrealtions

Yourfreedomdoes not start at thepoint


Yourfreedom is determinedbyyourand

others’ economicalpower.

Why is interpersonalCommunication?

  • Because of

  • Social

  • Psychological

  • Cultural

  • Economical

  • Political

  • Necessity

  • Need

  • Goal

  • Interest




  • Attaining a goal/objective

  • Meeting a need

  • Identifying ourselves and others

  • Establishing a contextforcertainrelationship (e.g., understanding)

  • Identityconstruction, maintenanceorrepair

  • Explaining/understanding, forecastingandcontrolling a relationship

  • Establishingandtanimlama a relationship

  • Establishingand tanımlama context of relationship

  • Relationshipmaintenance

  • Relationshipdevelopment

  • Relationshiprepair

  • Mediationandconflictresolution

  • Ending a relationship

  • Resatarting a relationship

  • Toeliminateuncertaintyandgainknowledge

  • Participate in reproduction of dominant interestsandgoals in organizedstructures

  • Participate in strugglesagainsttheinjustice, despotism, exploitation, slavery, oppression in organizedstructures

Nature of interpersonalcommunicationchangesaccordingto, e.g.:


Position of a person in theinteraction




  • Interpesonal communication

    • Can be:

    • Coincidental

    • Spontaneous, unplanned or planned

    • Temporary, midterm, long term or lifetime

    • Superficial or profound/intense

    • Fake, insincereor frank, genuine, sincere

    • Informal or formal

Context of interpersonalcommunicationincludes. E.g.:

  • Nature of organizedspace

  • Nature of organized time

  • Nature of powerrelations

  • Nature of objectives, personaland/ororganizedinterests

  • Nature of pastandpresentcontexts

  • Personalandstructuralfeelings

  • InterpersonalCommunication

  • Beginnings

  • Relationshipbulilding

  • Self-disclosure

  • Attachment

  • InterpersonalCommunication:

  • Decisiontostop at thebeginning

  • Who can andwho can not decide on startingandending a relationship at thebeginning?

  • InterpersonalCommunication

  • Maintenanceandintensification

  • Relationshipmaintenance

  • Gettingcloser

  • Establishingdomination


  • Uncertaintyreductionfordeciding on starting a relationship

  • Uncertaintyreductionforrelationshipdevelopment

  • InterpersonalCommunication

  • Maintenance

  • a. Avoidingconflict

  • b. Conflictandconflictresolution

  • Oral Communication

  • and

  • VerbalCommunication

  • Oral Communication:

  • involvescommunicationviaword of mouth; speaking, sayingsomething.

  • VerbalCommunication:

  • Word of mouthorspeakingorsayingsomethingalsobecomesverbalcommunicationwhensociety at theliteratelevel.

  • Oral Communication:

  • is historicallytheoldest form of communication as comparetotheverbalcommunication.

  • Oral Communicationandverbalcommunication is done viasayingsomethingbyusingvoice.

  • Sayingsomethingbyusinghumanvoice can be

  • Simply a soundthatmeanssomething; calling; expression of fear, pain, happiness; informing a dangeror a happening

  • Sayingsomethingbyusinghumanvoice can be

  • usingsociallycodedunwrrittenlanguage (oral tradition, illiteratetimes; no writtencodes).

  • Sayingsomethingbyusingvoice can be

  • Usingwords in a writtenlanguage. This is alsoverbalcommunication.

  • (wegenerallyuse oral communicationandverbalcommunicationinterchangably)


use of Language in literate sense.

It is theword of mouthexpression

beyond oral traditon of illeteratesocieties, at thelevel of writtentradition of literateage.


includesarticulationandpronunciation of writtencodes (alphabet).

Peopleusing oral communication in illeteratetimes can not spellorarticulatebyusingletters.


You can articulatethe oral expression of “dna” in reverse, however an illeterateperson can not.

  • Oral communication is theestablishement, maintenanceortermination of anykind of relationshipbymeans of onlysaying (theunwrittenwords).

  • Verbalcommunication is theestablishment, maintenanceortermination of anykind of relationshipbymeans of sayingwrittenorunwrittenwords.

  • Oral/Verbalcommunicationoccurs

  • in organized time

  • in organizedspace

  • in powerrelations

  • toattaincertaingoals

  • Oral/verbalcommunication can be

  • technologicallymediated

  • Or

  • technologicallyunmediated

  • technologicallyunmediated:

  • Usinghumanvoice

  • Technologicallymediated:

  • Usinginstruments in oral/verbalcommunication in orderto

  • reachbeyond a humanvoice can be heard (dominationoverspatialboundaries).

  • Overcomeimmediacy of orality

  • Technologicallymediated:

  • 1. Spatialextension of oral callingbyusinginstrumentssimilartomegaphone (theystillusetheirvoices)

  • (same time, but longdistance)

  • Technologicallymediated:

  • 2. Spatialextension of voice, soundand oral expressionbyusing

  • megaphone, microphone, telephone, cellphone

  • (same time but longdistance)

  • Technologicallymediated:

  • 3. Spatialextension of voice, soundand oral expressionbyusing

  • Recording

  • (different time anddifferentspace/place)

  • Oral/verbalcommunication can be:

  • at thesame time andsameplace

  • at thesame time but diferentplace

  • at diffrent time andsameplace

  • at different time but diferentplace

A wordorvocalsoundbyitself is not communicationperse.

A wordorvocalsound is a necessarymeanforestablishing oral/verbalcommunication.

  • Nonverbalcommunication

  • NonverbalCommunicationis thecommunication done bynon-verbalmeans (no wordsareused)

  • Innonverbalcommunication,

  • weestablish, sustainorterminate a relationshiporactivitywithoutusingwords.

  • Nonverbalcommunication

  • İncludessignsthathavesocialmeaning.

  • Socialmeaning of a sign can be sameordifferent in differentcommunities.

  • E.g.: legcrossing, headshaking,

  • crying, gazing

  • If a sign has no sociallyattachedmeaning, then it is not considered as means of communication.

  • E.g.: handmovementswhiletalking

  • Nonverbalsigns:

  • Icons (iconicsigns)

  • Theyresemblethesignified

  • a photograf, picture, chart, map, maniken, model car, a person’s profile, someroadsigns.

  • Iconicsignsareused in, e.g., conveying a meaninganddirecting/controlling a behavior. Web understandwhattheymeanwhen web seethemandbehaveaccordingly (orotherwise).

    • Nonverbalsigns:

  • Icons(iconicsigns)

  • Theyresemblethesignified/referred:

  • a photograf, picture, chart, map, maniken, model car, a person’s profile, someroadsigns.

  • Iconicsignsareused in, e.g., conveying a meaninganddirecting/controlling a behavior. Web understandwhattheymeanwhen web seethemandbehaveaccordingly (orotherwise).

    • Nonverbalsigns:

  • 2. Symbols (Symbolicsigns)

    • Theydo not resemblethesignified/referred:

    • A letter in an alphabet, a word ile “cat”

    • Symbolshavesociallyattachedmeaning.

    • Nonverbalsigns:

  • 3. Index

    • Theyarelearned in such a waythat web establishmeaningsanddriveconclusions.

    • Darkclouds ……. Itwillrain

    • Smoke…………… fire

    • Knock on thedoor… someone at thedoor.

    • Signs can have

    • Commoncodes

    • No codes

    • .

    • Signswithcommoncodesarepart of a language, thusaremeans of non-verbalcommunication

    • Forinstance:

    • Shakinghead

    • Handshaking

    • Somehandmotions

    • Signswith no commoncodesare not considered as languageandthusare not means of non-verbalcommunication

    • Signswith no commoncodesarealsoused in interpersonalinteraction, but theyarearbitrary, subjective, personalandabstract, hence it does not considered as language. in general.

    • Somesignshavemorethanonemeaningandhiglycontextbound:

    • armscrossing, lookingdownword, winking, lookingstraighttootherperson’seyes, cryingwhenaccused.

    • Functions of nonverbalcommunication

    • İdentitybuildingandmanagement, identity marketing, promotion of self

    • viacertainbehavior, dress/clothing, eatinganddrinkingcertainproducts, attendingtocertainplaces,

    • Relationalstatus marketing byusingthesametools in thepersonalidentitypolitics of consumerism.

    • Expressingcertainemotionalreaction

    • Viatone of voice, facialexpression, handmotions, looking, manner of walking,

    • İkna: Nasrettin Hocanın kürküne bakarak Hocayı değerlendiren, biçimin özün önüne geçirildiği hasta dünyada, kürkü giyen Nasrettin Hocanın ikna gücünü artırır.

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Regulation of interaction:

    • Ortak kodlar kullanımıyla (örneğin tastik, kabul, devam et, anladım gibi anlamlara gelen sözsüz ifadelerle)

    • karşılıklı konuşmanın düzenlenmesine yardım eder.

    • Regulation of flow of communication:

    • Sözsüz Communication paylaşılan sözsüz semboller yoluyla communicationakışınıdüzenlemeye yardım eder.

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Affirmationordisagreementfunction:

    • Sözlü kelimelere anlamla ilgili ekleme yapar.

    • sözü pekiştirir veya tam aksinekasıtlıolarak sözü yadsır.

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Completionfunction:

    • Sözü tamamlar; Sözü kelimelerin anlattığından daha güçlü olarak veya daha farklı olarak anlamlandırmadır;

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Attentiongatheringfunction:

    • Dikkat çekmek için vurgulamayı sağlar (örneğin masaya vurma, sesini birden yükseltme);

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Replacesthe oral expression

    • Sözle olan bir anlatımın sözsüz olarak bir işaretle yerini alır (örnegin evet anlamına baş sallama, Amerikalılarda küfür yerine orta parmağını göstermesi).

    Types of nonverbalCommunication

    • Yer ve mesafe tutma: Proxemics

    • Dokunma: Haptics

    • Jestler: Kinesics

    • Göz ve bakış: Occulecsics

    • Zaman ve statü kullanımı: Chronemics

    • Paralanguage

    • Maddeler ve Eşyalar: Artifacts

    • Fiziksel görünüş: Physical appearance

    Organized mind an behavior management: PUBLIC RELATIONS

    Theearliestdefinitionsemphasizedpressagentryandpublicity, whilemore modern definitionsincorporatetheconcepts of “engagement” and “relationshipbuilding.”

    The 1982 definitionby PRSA:“Publicrelationshelps an organizationanditspublicsadaptmutuallytoeachother.”

    In 2011/12, PRSA led an internationaleffortto modernize thedefinition of publicrelations:“Publicrelations is a strategiccommunicationprocessthatbuildsmutuallybeneficialrelationshipsbetweenorganizationsandtheirpublics.”

    “the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintainmutual understanding between an organisation (or individual) and it’s (ortheir) publics” (, 2007)

    PR1. is a basicfunction of management/admnstrtn2. has unavodablemanagerial/admnstrvfunctions


    3. Meetstheresearchandevaluationneedsbefore an managerialdecisionandactivity.


    4. Is a tooltoestablishrastionalismandeffectiveness in admnstrtvdecisionmaking. 5. is a continuousandsystematicprocess .


    6. Managesrelationshipwithaudience, consumerorpublic.7. publicparticipation, mediation, agreementand service areimportant in PR.



    Pr is activitytoinfluence an organization’sinternalandexternalrerlations.


    Areplannedactivitestomanagemindsandbehaviors in ordertoreachcertainobjectives.



    Helpsprivateandpublicpolicies in harmony.

    • PR History

    Press agentry: describes the activities of people who would do

    anything to get attention for their organisations, event or product.

    Public information: describes public relations becoming more

    sophisticated and evolving into accurate one-way information on

    behalf of organisations.

    Two-way asymmetric: describes two-way public relations workwhich is biased to propagating the organisation’s views, rather thanresponding to messages from publics.

    Two-way symmetric: is Grunig and Hunt’s ideal model for publicrelations. In this model, the publics’ views are respected and aregiven the same importance as the views of the organisationsponsoring the public relations work” (Johnson & Zawawi 2004,p63).

    What is thebasicactivities of pr?:

    Whatdoespr do?

    • • PR protectsandenhancesthereputation of a company.

    • • PR providesinformationtothepublic as well as specificaudiencesaboutanychangesornewsoccurringwithin an organization.

    • • PR concentrates on what a companyneedstogainpublicattentionandusesthemediatoaccomplishthis.

    • • PR acts as a trainedspokesperson on behalf of a companyandlooksfornewwaystoimprovethewaythepublicviews it.

    • Consultancy

    • Advocacy

    • 3. Publicity

    4. Makingandapplying personel ormemberrelations

    • 5. ManagingPublic affairs.

    • 6. RelationswithPublicinstitution

    • 7. Issuemanagement

    • 8. Managing financerelations

    • 9. ManagingIndustrialrelations

    • 10. Fund raising.

    • 11. Managingethnic/ azınlık relationsandmulticultural affairs.

    12. Privateeventsandgattingpublicparticipation

    13. Marketing relations

    14. Settingobjectives, planning, butgetpraparation,personel trainingf, facilityimprovement

    PR benefitssociety:

    It is a toolforpublicinterest


    Ittalkstopublicfororganizations. Hence, ıtestablishesmutuallybeneficialconnectionbetweenpublicandorganizations.

    PR Ethics

    “letpublic be fooled”


    PhineasTaylor Barnum


    PR associationsandtheirethicsprinciples

    Organized mind and behavior management: Advertising

    Concept of Advertising

    The Advertising Industry1.The Advertisers (The clients)Regional and National Advertisers2. The Advertising AgencyThe Client-Agency Relationship3. The Suppliers in Advertising 4. The Media of Advertising

    Advertising is Communication

    Scope and Importance of Advertising

    Advertising Functions

    Nature of Advertising

    Advertising and Society

    The Economic Impact of Advertising The Social Impact of Advertising Social Responsibility and Advertising Ethics How Government Regulates Advertising Government Restraints on International Advertisers Gevernment and nongovernment regulations

    Technologicallymediatedmindmanagementsystem: MassCommunication

    Mass Com is com mediatedbynewspaper, radio, book, magazines, television, internet etc.

    Mass com development

    Development of carriers of communication

    Development of recorders of communication

    Development of capacity

    Development of size (movable, carriable)

    Development of durability



    Development of print technology



    Photography ("writing with light")

    Telephony ("sound over distance")

    Phonography ("writing with sound")

    Phonography ("writing with sound")

    Motion Pictures

    Film and gramophone





    Broadcast News

    Computer-Mediated Communications

    DigitalTechnologyThe Turing machine

    Organization of masscommunication

    Groups of masscommunicaiton

    Printingtech: e.g.,




    Elekronicanddigitaltech: e.g.,




    Cemicaltech: e.g., Film

    Kitle iletişiminin endüstri tiplerine göre gruplandırılması



    Genel ilgi









    Haber magazinleri

    Kadın magazinleri

    Erkek magazinleri

    Gazete ekleri

    Tüketici magazinleri

    Ticari magazinler






    Müzik ve plak

    . Gramafon ve Plak

    . Teyp ve digital teknoloji





    .Günlük gazeteler

    Ulusal bölgesel Yerel

    .Günlük olmayan gazeteler

    • Roles of Masscommunicaiton

    • media

    • andrepresentation

    Who Controls the Media and their Meanings?


    . Public communication occurs whenever thereare a large number of people.

    Public communication involves lectures, rallies, convocations, and religious services.

    • Public speaking is usually much more structured than interpersonal communication.

    • Public speaking usually requires more formal language and a more formal style of delivery than other types of communication

    • Computermediatedcommunication

    • and

    • İnternet


    . Flow of resources

    Flow of mediaandtools

    Flow of endproducts




    . Flow of professionalideologiesandprofessionalpractices

    . Theend

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