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Part 2. İnterpersonal Communication. İntrprsnl communication involves a. interaction between two persons . Q: Is it nercessary to have at least two people for any communication ? . interaction between two persons . b. Use of natural and / or technological means of communication.

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Part 2

Part 2


Part 2

İnterpersonalCommunication


Part 2

İntrprsnlcommunicationinvolves

a. interactionbetweentwopersons.

Q: Is it nercessarytohave at leasttwopeopleforanycommunication?


Part 2

interactionbetweentwopersons.


Part 2

b. Use of

natural

and/or

technologicalmeans

of communication


Part 2

c. DifferingormatchingGoals, interestsandneeds


Part 2

d. Powerrelations

e.g.: betweenmasterandslave; betweenbossandworker; betweensellersandbuyers;

evenbetweentwofriends


Part 2

e. Organizedplace

Place is socially, politically, culturallyand/oreconomicallyorganized.

Socialorganization of place:

Politicalorgnzn:

Economicalorganization:

Personallyorganizedspace:

Q: Is publicspaceorganized?

Is a mountainorganized?


Part 2

Publicspace is organizedbythestate:

There is no freepublicspacewhere in people can freelyexpressthemselvesand do things as theywish.

Publicspace is culturally, economically, andpoliticalorganized. Youcannot do anythingypouwant.


Part 2

f. Organized time (andalsospace/place)

1. Sociallyorganized in general:

e.g. Organization of time accordingtominutes, hours, daysandweeks (Whatkind of organized time is “work time? Who can organizes it? Who can not?

THEN, is sociallyorganized time “organizedby “socialentity as a whole?


Part 2

Can you organize a spacefor a socialactivity?


Part 2

2. Politicallyorganized:

e.g., election time andplace, voting time andplace, campaign time andplace, demonstration time andplace.

Can you as an individual organize a time (orspace) politically? Outcome of it?


Part 2

f. Organized time

3. Culturallyorganized: Festivals, specialdays, holidays

(Is culturalorganizatonindependentfromothers?)

Can you organize a time andspacefor a culturalactivity?


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f. Organized time

4. Economicallyorganized time (andspace): organizingworking time andplace

Can you as an individual (not as, e.g., a manager) organize a time andspacefor an economicalactivity?


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f. Organized time

5. Personallyorganized time andspace

Whatarethedeterminingconditons of organizaton of time bysomeone/you?


Part 2

Interpersonalcommunication

May be:

  • Technologicallymediatedorunmediated

  • Nowordelayed

  • Informalorformal

  • Friendlyor not


Part 2

Whoandwherearepersons in interpersonalCommunication?

Who?

Youandothers as friend, parents, child, student, boss, worker, manager, soldier, policeer.

Where?

At home, school, workplace, street, mall, cinema, stadium


Part 2

Alwayskeep in mindthat

Youaresomebody

in

someorganized time andplace

Under

certainorganizedconditons

With

Certainpowerandinterests


Part 2

You do not live in a vacuum

as an independentandfreeagent/entity:

You can not liveandact as youwish.

Youlive in a societywhich is organizedaccordingtopowerrealtions


Part 2

Yourfreedomdoes not start at thepoint

wheremyfreedomends.

Yourfreedom is determinedbyyourand

others’ economicalpower.


Part 2

Why is interpersonalCommunication?

  • Because of

  • Social

  • Psychological

  • Cultural

  • Economical

  • Political

  • Necessity

  • Need

  • Goal

  • Interest


Part 2

Objectivesandoutcomes

of

interpersonalcommunication


Part 2

  • Attaining a goal/objective

  • Meeting a need

  • Identifying ourselves and others

  • Establishing a contextforcertainrelationship (e.g., understanding)


Part 2

  • Identityconstruction, maintenanceorrepair

  • Explaining/understanding, forecastingandcontrolling a relationship

  • Establishingandtanimlama a relationship

  • Establishingand tanımlama context of relationship


Part 2

  • Relationshipmaintenance

  • Relationshipdevelopment

  • Relationshiprepair

  • Mediationandconflictresolution

  • Ending a relationship

  • Resatarting a relationship


Part 2

  • Toeliminateuncertaintyandgainknowledge

  • Participate in reproduction of dominant interestsandgoals in organizedstructures

  • Participate in strugglesagainsttheinjustice, despotism, exploitation, slavery, oppression in organizedstructures


Part 2

Nature of interpersonalcommunicationchangesaccordingto, e.g.:

ExpectationsGoalsInterests

Position of a person in theinteraction

Organizedrolesandduties

Propertyrelations

Powerrelations


Part 2

  • Interpesonal communication

    • Can be:

    • Coincidental

    • Spontaneous, unplanned or planned

    • Temporary, midterm, long term or lifetime

    • Superficial or profound/intense

    • Fake, insincereor frank, genuine, sincere

    • Informal or formal


Part 2

Context of interpersonalcommunicationincludes. E.g.:

  • Nature of organizedspace

  • Nature of organized time

  • Nature of powerrelations

  • Nature of objectives, personaland/ororganizedinterests

  • Nature of pastandpresentcontexts

  • Personalandstructuralfeelings


Part 2

  • InterpersonalCommunication

  • Beginnings

  • Relationshipbulilding

  • Self-disclosure

  • Attachment


Part 2

  • InterpersonalCommunication:

  • Decisiontostop at thebeginning

  • Who can andwho can not decide on startingandending a relationship at thebeginning?


Part 2

  • InterpersonalCommunication

  • Maintenanceandintensification

  • Relationshipmaintenance

  • Gettingcloser

  • Establishingdomination


Part 2

Uncertaintyreduction

  • Uncertaintyreductionfordeciding on starting a relationship

  • Uncertaintyreductionforrelationshipdevelopment


Part 2

  • InterpersonalCommunication

  • Maintenance

  • a. Avoidingconflict

  • b. Conflictandconflictresolution


Part 2

  • Oral Communication

  • and

  • VerbalCommunication


Part 2

  • Oral Communication:

  • involvescommunicationviaword of mouth; speaking, sayingsomething.


Part 2

  • VerbalCommunication:

  • Word of mouthorspeakingorsayingsomethingalsobecomesverbalcommunicationwhensociety at theliteratelevel.


Part 2

  • Oral Communication:

  • is historicallytheoldest form of communication as comparetotheverbalcommunication.


Part 2

  • Oral Communicationandverbalcommunication is done viasayingsomethingbyusingvoice.


Part 2

  • Sayingsomethingbyusinghumanvoice can be

  • Simply a soundthatmeanssomething; calling; expression of fear, pain, happiness; informing a dangeror a happening


Part 2

  • Sayingsomethingbyusinghumanvoice can be

  • usingsociallycodedunwrrittenlanguage (oral tradition, illiteratetimes; no writtencodes).


Part 2

  • Sayingsomethingbyusingvoice can be

  • Usingwords in a writtenlanguage. This is alsoverbalcommunication.

  • (wegenerallyuse oral communicationandverbalcommunicationinterchangably)


Part 2

Verbalcommunicationrequires

use of Language in literate sense.

It is theword of mouthexpression

beyond oral traditon of illeteratesocieties, at thelevel of writtentradition of literateage.


Part 2

Verbalcommunication

includesarticulationandpronunciation of writtencodes (alphabet).

Peopleusing oral communication in illeteratetimes can not spellorarticulatebyusingletters.


Part 2

E.g.,

You can articulatethe oral expression of “dna” in reverse, however an illeterateperson can not.


Part 2

  • Oral communication is theestablishement, maintenanceortermination of anykind of relationshipbymeans of onlysaying (theunwrittenwords).


Part 2

  • Verbalcommunication is theestablishment, maintenanceortermination of anykind of relationshipbymeans of sayingwrittenorunwrittenwords.


Part 2

  • Oral/Verbalcommunicationoccurs

  • in organized time

  • in organizedspace

  • in powerrelations

  • toattaincertaingoals


Part 2

  • Oral/verbalcommunication can be

  • technologicallymediated

  • Or

  • technologicallyunmediated


Part 2

  • technologicallyunmediated:

  • Usinghumanvoice


Part 2

  • Technologicallymediated:

  • Usinginstruments in oral/verbalcommunication in orderto

  • reachbeyond a humanvoice can be heard (dominationoverspatialboundaries).

  • Overcomeimmediacy of orality


Part 2

  • Technologicallymediated:

  • 1. Spatialextension of oral callingbyusinginstrumentssimilartomegaphone (theystillusetheirvoices)

  • (same time, but longdistance)


Part 2

  • Technologicallymediated:

  • 2. Spatialextension of voice, soundand oral expressionbyusing

  • megaphone, microphone, telephone, cellphone

  • (same time but longdistance)


Part 2

  • Technologicallymediated:

  • 3. Spatialextension of voice, soundand oral expressionbyusing

  • Recording

  • (different time anddifferentspace/place)


Part 2

  • Oral/verbalcommunication can be:

  • at thesame time andsameplace

  • at thesame time but diferentplace


Part 2

  • at diffrent time andsameplace

  • at different time but diferentplace


Part 2

A wordorvocalsoundbyitself is not communicationperse.

A wordorvocalsound is a necessarymeanforestablishing oral/verbalcommunication.


Part 2

  • Nonverbalcommunication


Part 2

  • NonverbalCommunicationis thecommunication done bynon-verbalmeans (no wordsareused)


Part 2

  • Innonverbalcommunication,

  • weestablish, sustainorterminate a relationshiporactivitywithoutusingwords.


Part 2

  • Nonverbalcommunication

  • İncludessignsthathavesocialmeaning.


Part 2

  • Socialmeaning of a sign can be sameordifferent in differentcommunities.

  • E.g.: legcrossing, headshaking,

  • crying, gazing


Part 2

  • If a sign has no sociallyattachedmeaning, then it is not considered as means of communication.

  • E.g.: handmovementswhiletalking


Part 2

  • Nonverbalsigns:

  • Icons (iconicsigns)

  • Theyresemblethesignified

  • a photograf, picture, chart, map, maniken, model car, a person’s profile, someroadsigns.

  • Iconicsignsareused in, e.g., conveying a meaninganddirecting/controlling a behavior. Web understandwhattheymeanwhen web seethemandbehaveaccordingly (orotherwise).


  • Part 2

    • Nonverbalsigns:

  • Icons(iconicsigns)

  • Theyresemblethesignified/referred:

  • a photograf, picture, chart, map, maniken, model car, a person’s profile, someroadsigns.

  • Iconicsignsareused in, e.g., conveying a meaninganddirecting/controlling a behavior. Web understandwhattheymeanwhen web seethemandbehaveaccordingly (orotherwise).


  • Part 2

    • Nonverbalsigns:

  • 2. Symbols (Symbolicsigns)

    • Theydo not resemblethesignified/referred:

    • A letter in an alphabet, a word ile “cat”

    • Symbolshavesociallyattachedmeaning.


    Part 2

    • Nonverbalsigns:

  • 3. Index

    • Theyarelearned in such a waythat web establishmeaningsanddriveconclusions.

    • Darkclouds ……. Itwillrain

    • Smoke…………… fire

    • Knock on thedoor… someone at thedoor.


    Part 2

    • Signs can have

    • Commoncodes

    • No codes

    • .


    Part 2

    • Signswithcommoncodesarepart of a language, thusaremeans of non-verbalcommunication


    Part 2

    • Forinstance:

    • Shakinghead

    • Handshaking

    • Somehandmotions


    Part 2

    • Signswith no commoncodesare not considered as languageandthusare not means of non-verbalcommunication


    Part 2

    • Signswith no commoncodesarealsoused in interpersonalinteraction, but theyarearbitrary, subjective, personalandabstract, hence it does not considered as language. in general.


    Part 2

    • Somesignshavemorethanonemeaningandhiglycontextbound:

    • armscrossing, lookingdownword, winking, lookingstraighttootherperson’seyes, cryingwhenaccused.


    Part 2

    • Functions of nonverbalcommunication


    Part 2

    • İdentitybuildingandmanagement, identity marketing, promotion of self

    • viacertainbehavior, dress/clothing, eatinganddrinkingcertainproducts, attendingtocertainplaces,


    Part 2

    • Relationalstatus marketing byusingthesametools in thepersonalidentitypolitics of consumerism.


    Part 2

    • Expressingcertainemotionalreaction

    • Viatone of voice, facialexpression, handmotions, looking, manner of walking,


    Part 2

    • İkna: Nasrettin Hocanın kürküne bakarak Hocayı değerlendiren, biçimin özün önüne geçirildiği hasta dünyada, kürkü giyen Nasrettin Hocanın ikna gücünü artırır.


    Part 2

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Regulation of interaction:

    • Ortak kodlar kullanımıyla (örneğin tastik, kabul, devam et, anladım gibi anlamlara gelen sözsüz ifadelerle)

    • karşılıklı konuşmanın düzenlenmesine yardım eder.


    Part 2

    • Regulation of flow of communication:

    • Sözsüz Communication paylaşılan sözsüz semboller yoluyla communicationakışınıdüzenlemeye yardım eder.


    Part 2

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Affirmationordisagreementfunction:

    • Sözlü kelimelere anlamla ilgili ekleme yapar.

    • sözü pekiştirir veya tam aksinekasıtlıolarak sözü yadsır.


    Part 2

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Completionfunction:

    • Sözü tamamlar; Sözü kelimelerin anlattığından daha güçlü olarak veya daha farklı olarak anlamlandırmadır;


    Part 2

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Attentiongatheringfunction:

    • Dikkat çekmek için vurgulamayı sağlar (örneğin masaya vurma, sesini birden yükseltme);


    Part 2

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Replacesthe oral expression

    • Sözle olan bir anlatımın sözsüz olarak bir işaretle yerini alır (örnegin evet anlamına baş sallama, Amerikalılarda küfür yerine orta parmağını göstermesi).


    Part 2

    Types of nonverbalCommunication


    Part 2

    • Yer ve mesafe tutma: Proxemics

    • Dokunma: Haptics

    • Jestler: Kinesics


    Part 2

    • Göz ve bakış: Occulecsics

    • Zaman ve statü kullanımı: Chronemics

    • Paralanguage


    Part 2

    • Maddeler ve Eşyalar: Artifacts

    • Fiziksel görünüş: Physical appearance


    Organized mind an behavior management public relations

    Organized mind an behavior management: PUBLIC RELATIONS


    Part 2

    Theearliestdefinitionsemphasizedpressagentryandpublicity, whilemore modern definitionsincorporatetheconcepts of “engagement” and “relationshipbuilding.”


    Part 2

    The 1982 definitionby PRSA:“Publicrelationshelps an organizationanditspublicsadaptmutuallytoeachother.”


    Part 2

    In 2011/12, PRSA led an internationaleffortto modernize thedefinition of publicrelations:“Publicrelations is a strategiccommunicationprocessthatbuildsmutuallybeneficialrelationshipsbetweenorganizationsandtheirpublics.”


    Part 2

    “the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintainmutual understanding between an organisation (or individual) and it’s (ortheir) publics” (www.pria.com.au, 2007)


    Pr 1 is a basic function of management admnstrtn 2 has unavodable managerial admnstrv functions

    PR1. is a basicfunction of management/admnstrtn2. has unavodablemanagerial/admnstrvfunctions


    3 meets the research and evaluation needs before an managerial decision and activity

    PR

    3. Meetstheresearchandevaluationneedsbefore an managerialdecisionandactivity.


    Part 2

    PR

    4. Is a tooltoestablishrastionalismandeffectiveness in admnstrtvdecisionmaking. 5. is a continuousandsystematicprocess .


    Part 2

    PR

    6. Managesrelationshipwithaudience, consumerorpublic.7. publicparticipation, mediation, agreementand service areimportant in PR.


    8 requires long term commitment

    PR

    8.Requireslongtermcommitment


    Part 2

    Pr is activitytoinfluence an organization’sinternalandexternalrerlations.


    Part 2

    PR

    Areplannedactivitestomanagemindsandbehaviors in ordertoreachcertainobjectives.


    Part 2

    PR

    Helpssocietytoreachdecisionshelpssocietytoworkeffectively

    Helpsprivateandpublicpolicies in harmony.


    Part 2

    • PR History


    Part 2

    Press agentry: describes the activities of people who would do

    anything to get attention for their organisations, event or product.

    Public information: describes public relations becoming more

    sophisticated and evolving into accurate one-way information on

    behalf of organisations.


    Part 2

    Two-way asymmetric: describes two-way public relations workwhich is biased to propagating the organisation’s views, rather thanresponding to messages from publics.

    Two-way symmetric: is Grunig and Hunt’s ideal model for publicrelations. In this model, the publics’ views are respected and aregiven the same importance as the views of the organisationsponsoring the public relations work” (Johnson & Zawawi 2004,p63).


    Part 2

    What is thebasicactivities of pr?:

    Whatdoespr do?


    Part 2

    • • PR protectsandenhancesthereputation of a company.

    • • PR providesinformationtothepublic as well as specificaudiencesaboutanychangesornewsoccurringwithin an organization.

    • • PR concentrates on what a companyneedstogainpublicattentionandusesthemediatoaccomplishthis.

    • • PR acts as a trainedspokesperson on behalf of a companyandlooksfornewwaystoimprovethewaythepublicviews it.


    Part 2

    • Consultancy

    • Advocacy

    • 3. Publicity


    Part 2

    4. Makingandapplying personel ormemberrelations


    Part 2

    • 5. ManagingPublic affairs.

    • 6. RelationswithPublicinstitution

    • 7. Issuemanagement

    • 8. Managing financerelations


    Part 2

    • 9. ManagingIndustrialrelations

    • 10. Fund raising.

    • 11. Managingethnic/ azınlık relationsandmulticultural affairs.


    Part 2

    12. Privateeventsandgattingpublicparticipation

    13. Marketing relations

    14. Settingobjectives, planning, butgetpraparation,personel trainingf, facilityimprovement


    Part 2

    PR benefitssociety:

    It is a toolforpublicinterest

    Ittalkstoinsensitiveorganizationsforpublic

    Ittalkstopublicfororganizations. Hence, ıtestablishesmutuallybeneficialconnectionbetweenpublicandorganizations.


    Part 2

    PR Ethics


    Part 2

    “letpublic be fooled”

    Circuspromoter

    PhineasTaylor Barnum


    Part 2

    PR:

    PR associationsandtheirethicsprinciples


    Organized mind and behavior management advertising

    Organized mind and behavior management: Advertising


    Concept of advertising

    Concept of Advertising


    Part 2

    The Advertising Industry1.The Advertisers (The clients)Regional and National Advertisers2. The Advertising AgencyThe Client-Agency Relationship3. The Suppliers in Advertising 4. The Media of Advertising


    Advertising is communication

    Advertising is Communication


    Scope and importance of advertising

    Scope and Importance of Advertising


    Advertising functions

    Advertising Functions


    Nature of advertising

    Nature of Advertising


    Advertising and society

    Advertising and Society


    Part 2

    The Economic Impact of Advertising The Social Impact of Advertising Social Responsibility and Advertising Ethics How Government Regulates Advertising Government Restraints on International Advertisers Gevernment and nongovernment regulations


    Technologically mediated mind management system mass communication

    Technologicallymediatedmindmanagementsystem: MassCommunication


    Mass com is com mediated by newspaper radio book magazines television internet etc

    Mass Com is com mediatedbynewspaper, radio, book, magazines, television, internet etc.


    Mass com development

    Mass com development


    Development of carriers of communication

    Development of carriers of communication


    Development of recorders of communication

    Development of recorders of communication


    Development of capacity

    Development of capacity


    Development of size movable carriable

    Development of size (movable, carriable)


    Development of durability

    Development of durability


    Newspapers

    Newspapers


    Books and printing

    BooksandPrinting


    Development of print technology

    Development of print technology


    Part 2

    Maps


    Technical media telegraphy and analog technology

    TechnicalMediaTelegraphyandAnalogTechnology


    Photography writing with light

    Photography ("writing with light")


    Telephony sound over distance

    Telephony ("sound over distance")


    Phonography writing with sound

    Phonography ("writing with sound")


    Phonography writing with sound1

    Phonography ("writing with sound")


    Motion pictures

    Motion Pictures


    Film and gramophone

    Film and gramophone


    Radio

    Radio


    Advertising

    Advertising


    Publicity pr

    Publicity/PR


    Television

    Television


    Broadcast news

    Broadcast News


    Computer mediated communications

    Computer-Mediated Communications


    Digital technology the turing machine

    DigitalTechnologyThe Turing machine


    Organization of mass communication

    Organization of masscommunication


    Part 2

    Groups of masscommunicaiton

    Printingtech: e.g.,

    Books

    Newspapers

    Magazines

    Elekronicanddigitaltech: e.g.,

    Radyo

    Televizyon

    WEB

    Cemicaltech: e.g., Film


    Part 2

    Kitle iletişiminin endüstri tiplerine göre gruplandırılması

    WEB

    Kitaplar

    Genel ilgi

    Okul

    Referans

    uzmanlık

    Televizyon

    Ulusal

    Yerel

    Uluslararası

    Magazinler

    Haber magazinleri

    Kadın magazinleri

    Erkek magazinleri

    Gazete ekleri

    Tüketici magazinleri

    Ticari magazinler

    Vb.

    Radio

    Ulusal

    Yerel

    Uluslararası

    Müzik ve plak

    . Gramafon ve Plak

    . Teyp ve digital teknoloji

    Film

    Sinema

    Tv

    Gazeteler

    .Günlük gazeteler

    Ulusal bölgesel Yerel

    .Günlük olmayan gazeteler


    Part 2

    • Roles of Masscommunicaiton


    Part 2

    • media

    • andrepresentation


    Part 2

    Who Controls the Media and their Meanings?


    Part 2

    PUBLIC COMMUNICATION


    Part 2

    . Public communication occurs whenever thereare a large number of people.


    Part 2

    Public communication involves lectures, rallies, convocations, and religious services.


    Part 2

    • Public speaking is usually much more structured than interpersonal communication.


    Part 2

    • Public speaking usually requires more formal language and a more formal style of delivery than other types of communication


    Part 2

    • Computermediatedcommunication

    • and

    • İnternet


    Part 2

    InternationalCommunication


    Part 2

    . Flow of resources


    Part 2

    Flow of mediaandtools


    Part 2

    Flow of endproducts

    Software

    Programs

    Films


    Part 2

    . Flow of professionalideologiesandprofessionalpractices


    Part 2

    . Theend


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