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Part 2. İnterpersonal Communication. İntrprsnl communication involves a. interaction between two persons . Q: Is it nercessary to have at least two people for any communication ? . interaction between two persons . b. Use of natural and / or technological means of communication.

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Part 2
Part 2



a. interactionbetweentwopersons.

Q: Is it nercessarytohave at leasttwopeopleforanycommunication?


b. Use of




of communication

c. DifferingormatchingGoals, interestsandneeds

d. Powerrelations

e.g.: betweenmasterandslave; betweenbossandworker; betweensellersandbuyers;


e. Organizedplace

Place is socially, politically, culturallyand/oreconomicallyorganized.

Socialorganization of place:




Q: Is publicspaceorganized?

Is a mountainorganized?

Publicspace is organizedbythestate:

There is no freepublicspacewhere in people can freelyexpressthemselvesand do things as theywish.

Publicspace is culturally, economically, andpoliticalorganized. Youcannot do anythingypouwant.

f. Organized time (andalsospace/place)

1. Sociallyorganized in general:

e.g. Organization of time accordingtominutes, hours, daysandweeks (Whatkind of organized time is “work time? Who can organizes it? Who can not?

THEN, is sociallyorganized time “organizedby “socialentity as a whole?

Can you organize a spacefor a socialactivity?

2. Politicallyorganized:

e.g., election time andplace, voting time andplace, campaign time andplace, demonstration time andplace.

Can you as an individual organize a time (orspace) politically? Outcome of it?

f. Organized time

3. Culturallyorganized: Festivals, specialdays, holidays

(Is culturalorganizatonindependentfromothers?)

Can you organize a time andspacefor a culturalactivity?

f. Organized time

4. Economicallyorganized time (andspace): organizingworking time andplace

Can you as an individual (not as, e.g., a manager) organize a time andspacefor an economicalactivity?

f. Organized time

5. Personallyorganized time andspace

Whatarethedeterminingconditons of organizaton of time bysomeone/you?


May be:

  • Technologicallymediatedorunmediated

  • Nowordelayed

  • Informalorformal

  • Friendlyor not

Whoandwherearepersons in interpersonalCommunication?


Youandothers as friend, parents, child, student, boss, worker, manager, soldier, policeer.


At home, school, workplace, street, mall, cinema, stadium

Alwayskeep in mindthat



someorganized time andplace





You do not live in a vacuum

as an independentandfreeagent/entity:

You can not liveandact as youwish.

Youlive in a societywhich is organizedaccordingtopowerrealtions

Yourfreedomdoes not start at thepoint


Yourfreedom is determinedbyyourand

others’ economicalpower.

Why is interpersonalCommunication?

  • Because of

  • Social

  • Psychological

  • Cultural

  • Economical

  • Political

  • Necessity

  • Need

  • Goal

  • Interest




  • Attaining a goal/objective

  • Meeting a need

  • Identifying ourselves and others

  • Establishing a contextforcertainrelationship (e.g., understanding)

  • Identityconstruction, maintenanceorrepair

  • Explaining/understanding, forecastingandcontrolling a relationship

  • Establishingandtanimlama a relationship

  • Establishingand tanımlama context of relationship

  • Relationshipmaintenance

  • Relationshipdevelopment

  • Relationshiprepair

  • Mediationandconflictresolution

  • Ending a relationship

  • Resatarting a relationship

  • Toeliminateuncertaintyandgainknowledge

  • Participate in reproduction of dominant interestsandgoals in organizedstructures

  • Participate in strugglesagainsttheinjustice, despotism, exploitation, slavery, oppression in organizedstructures

Nature of interpersonalcommunicationchangesaccordingto, e.g.:


Position of a person in theinteraction




  • Interpesonal communication

    • Can be:

    • Coincidental

    • Spontaneous, unplanned or planned

    • Temporary, midterm, long term or lifetime

    • Superficial or profound/intense

    • Fake, insincereor frank, genuine, sincere

    • Informal or formal

Context of interpersonalcommunicationincludes. E.g.:

  • Nature of organizedspace

  • Nature of organized time

  • Nature of powerrelations

  • Nature of objectives, personaland/ororganizedinterests

  • Nature of pastandpresentcontexts

  • Personalandstructuralfeelings

  • InterpersonalCommunication

  • Beginnings

  • Relationshipbulilding

  • Self-disclosure

  • Attachment

  • Who can andwho can not decide on startingandending a relationship at thebeginning?

  • Relationshipmaintenance

  • Gettingcloser

  • Establishingdomination


  • Uncertaintyreductionfordeciding on starting a relationship

  • Uncertaintyreductionforrelationshipdevelopment

  • a. Avoidingconflict

  • b. Conflictandconflictresolution

  • Oral Communication

  • and

  • VerbalCommunication

  • Oral Communication:

  • involvescommunicationviaword of mouth; speaking, sayingsomething.

  • VerbalCommunication:

  • Word of mouthorspeakingorsayingsomethingalsobecomesverbalcommunicationwhensociety at theliteratelevel.

  • Oral Communication:

  • is historicallytheoldest form of communication as comparetotheverbalcommunication.

  • Oral Communicationandverbalcommunication is done viasayingsomethingbyusingvoice.

  • Sayingsomethingbyusinghumanvoice can be

  • Simply a soundthatmeanssomething; calling; expression of fear, pain, happiness; informing a dangeror a happening

  • Sayingsomethingbyusinghumanvoice can be

  • usingsociallycodedunwrrittenlanguage (oral tradition, illiteratetimes; no writtencodes).

  • Sayingsomethingbyusingvoice can be

  • Usingwords in a writtenlanguage. This is alsoverbalcommunication.

  • (wegenerallyuse oral communicationandverbalcommunicationinterchangably)


use of Language in literate sense.

It is theword of mouthexpression

beyond oral traditon of illeteratesocieties, at thelevel of writtentradition of literateage.


includesarticulationandpronunciation of writtencodes (alphabet).

Peopleusing oral communication in illeteratetimes can not spellorarticulatebyusingletters.


You can articulatethe oral expression of “dna” in reverse, however an illeterateperson can not.

  • Oral communication is theestablishement, maintenanceortermination of anykind of relationshipbymeans of onlysaying (theunwrittenwords).

  • Verbalcommunication is theestablishment, maintenanceortermination of anykind of relationshipbymeans of sayingwrittenorunwrittenwords.

  • Oral/Verbalcommunicationoccurs

  • in organized time

  • in organizedspace

  • in powerrelations

  • toattaincertaingoals

  • Oral/verbalcommunication can be

  • technologicallymediated

  • Or

  • technologicallyunmediated

  • Technologicallymediated:

  • Usinginstruments in oral/verbalcommunication in orderto

  • reachbeyond a humanvoice can be heard (dominationoverspatialboundaries).

  • Overcomeimmediacy of orality

  • Technologicallymediated:

  • 1. Spatialextension of oral callingbyusinginstrumentssimilartomegaphone (theystillusetheirvoices)

  • (same time, but longdistance)

  • Technologicallymediated:

  • 2. Spatialextension of voice, soundand oral expressionbyusing

  • megaphone, microphone, telephone, cellphone

  • (same time but longdistance)

  • Technologicallymediated:

  • 3. Spatialextension of voice, soundand oral expressionbyusing

  • Recording

  • (different time anddifferentspace/place)

  • Oral/verbalcommunication can be:

  • at thesame time andsameplace

  • at thesame time but diferentplace

  • at diffrent time andsameplace

  • at different time but diferentplace

A wordorvocalsoundbyitself is not communicationperse.

A wordorvocalsound is a necessarymeanforestablishing oral/verbalcommunication.

  • Nonverbalcommunication

  • NonverbalCommunicationis thecommunication done bynon-verbalmeans (no wordsareused)

  • Innonverbalcommunication,

  • weestablish, sustainorterminate a relationshiporactivitywithoutusingwords.

  • Nonverbalcommunication

  • İncludessignsthathavesocialmeaning.

  • Socialmeaning of a sign can be sameordifferent in differentcommunities.

  • E.g.: legcrossing, headshaking,

  • crying, gazing

  • If a sign has no sociallyattachedmeaning, then it is not considered as means of communication.

  • E.g.: handmovementswhiletalking

  • Icons (iconicsigns)

  • Theyresemblethesignified

  • a photograf, picture, chart, map, maniken, model car, a person’s profile, someroadsigns.

  • Iconicsignsareused in, e.g., conveying a meaninganddirecting/controlling a behavior. Web understandwhattheymeanwhen web seethemandbehaveaccordingly (orotherwise).

  • Icons(iconicsigns)

  • Theyresemblethesignified/referred:

  • a photograf, picture, chart, map, maniken, model car, a person’s profile, someroadsigns.

  • Iconicsignsareused in, e.g., conveying a meaninganddirecting/controlling a behavior. Web understandwhattheymeanwhen web seethemandbehaveaccordingly (orotherwise).

  • 2. Symbols (Symbolicsigns)

    • Theydo not resemblethesignified/referred:

    • A letter in an alphabet, a word ile “cat”

    • Symbolshavesociallyattachedmeaning.

  • 3. Index

    • Theyarelearned in such a waythat web establishmeaningsanddriveconclusions.

    • Darkclouds ……. Itwillrain

    • Smoke…………… fire

    • Knock on thedoor… someone at thedoor.

    • Signs can have

    • Commoncodes

    • No codes

    • .

    • Signswithcommoncodesarepart of a language, thusaremeans of non-verbalcommunication

    • Forinstance:

    • Shakinghead

    • Handshaking

    • Somehandmotions

    • Signswith no commoncodesare not considered as languageandthusare not means of non-verbalcommunication

    • Signswith no commoncodesarealsoused in interpersonalinteraction, but theyarearbitrary, subjective, personalandabstract, hence it does not considered as language. in general.

    • Somesignshavemorethanonemeaningandhiglycontextbound:

    • armscrossing, lookingdownword, winking, lookingstraighttootherperson’seyes, cryingwhenaccused.

    • İdentitybuildingandmanagement, identity marketing, promotion of self

    • viacertainbehavior, dress/clothing, eatinganddrinkingcertainproducts, attendingtocertainplaces,

    • Relationalstatus marketing byusingthesametools in thepersonalidentitypolitics of consumerism.

    • Expressingcertainemotionalreaction

    • Viatone of voice, facialexpression, handmotions, looking, manner of walking,

    • İkna: Nasrettin Hocanın kürküne bakarak Hocayı değerlendiren, biçimin özün önüne geçirildiği hasta dünyada, kürkü giyen Nasrettin Hocanın ikna gücünü artırır.

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Regulation of interaction:

    • Ortak kodlar kullanımıyla (örneğin tastik, kabul, devam et, anladım gibi anlamlara gelen sözsüz ifadelerle)

    • karşılıklı konuşmanın düzenlenmesine yardım eder.

    • Regulation of flow of communication:

    • Sözsüz Communication paylaşılan sözsüz semboller yoluyla communicationakışınıdüzenlemeye yardım eder.

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Affirmationordisagreementfunction:

    • Sözlü kelimelere anlamla ilgili ekleme yapar.

    • sözü pekiştirir veya tam aksinekasıtlıolarak sözü yadsır.

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Completionfunction:

    • Sözü tamamlar; Sözü kelimelerin anlattığından daha güçlü olarak veya daha farklı olarak anlamlandırmadır;

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Attentiongatheringfunction:

    • Dikkat çekmek için vurgulamayı sağlar (örneğin masaya vurma, sesini birden yükseltme);

    • Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

    • Replacesthe oral expression

    • Sözle olan bir anlatımın sözsüz olarak bir işaretle yerini alır (örnegin evet anlamına baş sallama, Amerikalılarda küfür yerine orta parmağını göstermesi).

    Types of nonverbalCommunication

    Theearliestdefinitionsemphasizedpressagentryandpublicity, whilemore modern definitionsincorporatetheconcepts of “engagement” and “relationshipbuilding.”

    The 1982 definitionby PRSA:“Publicrelationshelps an organizationanditspublicsadaptmutuallytoeachother.”

    In 2011/12, PRSA led an internationaleffortto modernize thedefinition of publicrelations:“Publicrelations is a strategiccommunicationprocessthatbuildsmutuallybeneficialrelationshipsbetweenorganizationsandtheirpublics.”

    “the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintainmutual understanding between an organisation (or individual) and it’s (ortheir) publics” (, 2007)

    Pr 1 is a basic function of management admnstrtn 2 has unavodable managerial admnstrv functions
    PR and maintain1. is a basicfunction of management/admnstrtn2. has unavodablemanagerial/admnstrvfunctions

    3 meets the research and evaluation needs before an managerial decision and activity

    PR and maintain

    3. Meetstheresearchandevaluationneedsbefore an managerialdecisionandactivity.

    PR and maintain

    4. Is a tooltoestablishrastionalismandeffectiveness in admnstrtvdecisionmaking. 5. is a continuousandsystematicprocess .

    PR and maintain

    6. Managesrelationshipwithaudience, consumerorpublic.7. publicparticipation, mediation, agreementand service areimportant in PR.

    8 requires long term commitment

    PR and maintain


    Pr and maintain is activitytoinfluence an organization’sinternalandexternalrerlations.

    PR and maintain

    Areplannedactivitestomanagemindsandbehaviors in ordertoreachcertainobjectives.

    PR and maintain


    Helpsprivateandpublicpolicies in harmony.

    • PR and maintainHistory

    Press and maintainagentry: describes the activities of people who would do

    anything to get attention for their organisations, event or product.

    Public information: describes public relations becoming more

    sophisticated and evolving into accurate one-way information on

    behalf of organisations.

    Two-way asymmetric: describes two-way public relations work and maintainwhich is biased to propagating the organisation’s views, rather thanresponding to messages from publics.

    Two-way symmetric: is Grunig and Hunt’s ideal model for publicrelations. In this model, the publics’ views are respected and aregiven the same importance as the views of the organisationsponsoring the public relations work” (Johnson & Zawawi 2004,p63).

    What and maintain is thebasicactivities of pr?:

    Whatdoespr do?

    • • PR and maintainprotectsandenhancesthereputation of a company.

    • • PR providesinformationtothepublic as well as specificaudiencesaboutanychangesornewsoccurringwithin an organization.

    • • PR concentrates on what a companyneedstogainpublicattentionandusesthemediatoaccomplishthis.

    • • PR acts as a trainedspokesperson on behalf of a companyandlooksfornewwaystoimprovethewaythepublicviews it.

    4 and maintain. Makingandapplying personel ormemberrelations

    • 5 and maintain. ManagingPublic affairs.

    • 6. RelationswithPublicinstitution

    • 7. Issuemanagement

    • 8. Managing financerelations

    • 9. and maintainManagingIndustrialrelations

    • 10. Fund raising.

    • 11. Managingethnic/ azınlık relationsandmulticultural affairs.

    1 and maintain2. Privateeventsandgattingpublicparticipation

    13. Marketing relations

    14. Settingobjectives, planning, butgetpraparation,personel trainingf, facilityimprovement

    PR and maintainbenefitssociety:

    It is a toolforpublicinterest


    Ittalkstopublicfororganizations. Hence, ıtestablishesmutuallybeneficialconnectionbetweenpublicandorganizations.

    PR and maintainEthics

    and maintainletpublic be fooled”


    PhineasTaylor Barnum

    PR and maintain:

    PR associationsandtheirethicsprinciples

    The Advertising Industry and maintain1.The Advertisers (The clients)Regional and National Advertisers2. The Advertising AgencyThe Client-Agency Relationship3. The Suppliers in Advertising 4. The Media of Advertising

    Advertising functions
    Advertising Functions and maintain

    Nature of advertising
    Nature of Advertising and maintain

    The Economic Impact of Advertising and maintainThe Social Impact of Advertising Social Responsibility and Advertising Ethics How Government Regulates Advertising Government Restraints on International Advertisers Gevernment and nongovernment regulations

    Technologically mediated mind management system mass communication
    Technologically and maintainmediatedmindmanagementsystem: MassCommunication

    Mass com is com mediated by newspaper radio book magazines television internet etc
    Mass and maintain Com is com mediatedbynewspaper, radio, book, magazines, television, internet etc.

    Mass com development
    Mass and maintain com development

    Development of carriers of communication
    Development and maintain of carriers of communication

    Development of recorders of communication
    Development and maintain of recorders of communication

    Development of capacity
    Development and maintain of capacity

    Development of size movable carriable
    Development and maintain of size (movable, carriable)

    Development of durability
    Development and maintain of durability

    Newspapers and maintain

    Books and printing
    Books and maintainandPrinting

    Maps and maintain

    Technical media telegraphy and analog technology
    Technical and maintainMediaTelegraphyandAnalogTechnology

    Motion pictures
    Motion Pictures and maintain

    Film and gramophone
    Film and gramophone and maintain

    Radio and maintain

    Advertising and maintain

    Publicity pr
    Publicity/PR and maintain

    Television and maintain

    Broadcast news
    Broadcast News and maintain

    Digital technology the turing machine
    Digital and maintainTechnologyThe Turing machine

    Organization of mass communication
    Organization and maintain of masscommunication

    Groups and maintain of masscommunicaiton

    Printingtech: e.g.,




    Elekronicanddigitaltech: e.g.,




    Cemicaltech: e.g., Film

    Kitle iletişiminin endüstri tiplerine göre gruplandırılması



    Genel ilgi









    Haber magazinleri

    Kadın magazinleri

    Erkek magazinleri

    Gazete ekleri

    Tüketici magazinleri

    Ticari magazinler






    Müzik ve plak

    . Gramafon ve Plak

    . Teyp ve digital teknoloji





    .Günlük gazeteler

    Ulusal bölgesel Yerel

    .Günlük olmayan gazeteler

    • Roles gruplandırılması of Masscommunicaiton

    • media gruplandırılması

    • andrepresentation

    PUBLIC COMMUNICATION gruplandırılması

    . gruplandırılmasıPublic communication occurs whenever thereare a large number of people.

    Public communication involves lectures, rallies, convocations, and religious services.

    • Computer more formal style of delivery than other types of communicationmediatedcommunication

    • and

    • İnternet

    International more formal style of delivery than other types of communicationCommunication

    . more formal style of delivery than other types of communicationFlow of resources

    Flow more formal style of delivery than other types of communication of mediaandtools

    Flow more formal style of delivery than other types of communication of endproducts




    . more formal style of delivery than other types of communicationFlow of professionalideologiesandprofessionalpractices

    . more formal style of delivery than other types of communicationTheend