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Chapter 17. Viruses & prokaryotes. 17-1 Viruses. What is a virus? How do viral life cycles differ? What is the relationship between viruses and their hosts?. What is a virus?. A virus is a noncellular particle made up of genetic material and protein that can invade living cells

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Chapter 17

Chapter 17

Viruses & prokaryotes


17 1 viruses
17-1 Viruses

  • What is a virus?

  • How do viral life cycles differ?

  • What is the relationship between viruses and their hosts?


What is a virus
What is a virus?

  • A virus is a noncellular particle made up of genetic material and protein that can invade living cells

  • First discovered in 1935 by an American scientist named Wendell Stanley

  • It was called the tobacco mosaic virus or TMV


Tmv on tobacco plant
TMV on tobacco plant

http://healthyhomegardening.com/Disease.php?pid=15


http://concerncrisis.blogspot.com/2008/03/tobacco-mosaic-virus-tmv.htmlhttp://concerncrisis.blogspot.com/2008/03/tobacco-mosaic-virus-tmv.html


Structure of a virus
Structure of a virushttp://concerncrisis.blogspot.com/2008/03/tobacco-mosaic-virus-tmv.html

  • Composed of a core of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid

  • Capsid protects the genetic material

  • The core contains several genes to several hundred genes


http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/virus.htmlhttp://concerncrisis.blogspot.com/2008/03/tobacco-mosaic-virus-tmv.html


  • More complex structures are in viruses called http://concerncrisis.blogspot.com/2008/03/tobacco-mosaic-virus-tmv.htmlbacteriophages – viruses that invade bacteria

  • Has a head region (capsid), a nucleic acid core, and a tail

  • Some have tail fibers that allow them to attach to the bacteria


http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/virus.htmlhttp://concerncrisis.blogspot.com/2008/03/tobacco-mosaic-virus-tmv.html



http://learnsomescience.com/microbiology/viruses-viroids-and-prions/http://learnsomescience.com/microbiology/viruses-viroids-and-prions/


Specificity of a virus
Specificity of a virushttp://learnsomescience.com/microbiology/viruses-viroids-and-prions/

  • Specific viruses infect specific organisms

  • Plant virus cannot infect an animal

  • Only mammal viruses that do not infect other animals and vise versa

  • Viruses for every type of organism


http://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem101/dna-viruses/viruses.htmlhttp://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem101/dna-viruses/viruses.html


Life cycle of a lytic virus
Life cycle of a Lytic Virushttp://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem101/dna-viruses/viruses.html

  • In order to reproduce, viruses must invade, or infect, a living host cell

  • They also invade in different ways…

  • One way is done by lytic viruses where when they invade the cell bursts or lyses


Life cycle of a lytic virus1
Life cycle of a lytic virushttp://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem101/dna-viruses/viruses.html

http://dvm5.blogspot.com/2010/11/classification-of-viruses.html


Infection
Infectionhttp://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem101/dna-viruses/viruses.html

  • A virus is activated by contact with the right host cell (chance)

  • It then injects its DNA into the cell


Life cycle of a lytic virus2
Life cycle of a lytic virushttp://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem101/dna-viruses/viruses.html

http://dvm5.blogspot.com/2010/11/classification-of-viruses.html


Growth
Growthhttp://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem101/dna-viruses/viruses.html

  • The RNA polymerase of the host cell creates messenger RNA of the virus DNA

  • This mRNA then takes over the host cell

  • Some proteins turn off the creation of molecules for the cell


Life cycle of a lytic virus3
Life cycle of a lytic virushttp://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem101/dna-viruses/viruses.html

http://dvm5.blogspot.com/2010/11/classification-of-viruses.html


Replication
Replicationhttp://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem101/dna-viruses/viruses.html

  • It then uses the host cell to make thousands of copies of its own protein coat and DNA

  • The host cell is then filled with viral DNA molecules

  • These three steps can happen in 25 minutes


Life cycle of a lytic virus4
Life cycle of a lytic virushttp://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem101/dna-viruses/viruses.html

http://dvm5.blogspot.com/2010/11/classification-of-viruses.html




Lysogenic infection
Lysogenic Infection of virus particles

  • Lysogenic infection-the virus does not reproduce and lyse its host cell

  • The DNA of the virus enters the cell and is inserted into the DNA of the host cell

  • The viral DNA is then known as a prophage


Prophage activity
Prophage activity of virus particles

  • Blocks entry of other viruses and may even add useful DNA to the host cell’s DNA

  • Eventually it will remove itself from the DNA and create new virus particles



Retroviruses
Retroviruses of virus particles

  • Retroviruses contain RNA as their genetic information

  • When they enter the cell they produce a DNA copy

  • This then enters into the host cells DNA


http://ucdbiotech.wordpress.com/2009/10/13/be-on-the-alert-the-first-ever-gammaretrovirus-capable-of-infecting-human-hosts-has-been-identifiedhttp://ucdbiotech.wordpress.com/2009/10/13/be-on-the-alert-the-first-ever-gammaretrovirus-capable-of-infecting-human-hosts-has-been-identified/


Viruses and living cells
Viruses and Living Cellshttp://ucdbiotech.wordpress.com/2009/10/13/be-on-the-alert-the-first-ever-gammaretrovirus-capable-of-infecting-human-hosts-has-been-identified

  • Viruses must infect living cells to carry out their functions

  • Viruses are parasites-an organism that depends entirely upon another living organism for its existence in such a way that it harms that organism


http://westernrifleshooters.blogspot.com/2011/02/interview-with-stanley-kurtz.htmlhttp://westernrifleshooters.blogspot.com/2011/02/interview-with-stanley-kurtz.html


Are viruses alive
Are viruses alive?http://westernrifleshooters.blogspot.com/2011/02/interview-with-stanley-kurtz.html

  • Viruses are not made of cells

  • They can grow, reproduce, regulate gene expression, an evolve

  • It is up for debate


Virus video
Virus videohttp://westernrifleshooters.blogspot.com/2011/02/interview-with-stanley-kurtz.html


17 2 prokaryotic cells
17-2 Prokaryotic Cellshttp://westernrifleshooters.blogspot.com/2011/02/interview-with-stanley-kurtz.html

Bacteria Intro video

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/imgbio/cellprokaryote6.gif


Prokaryotes
Prokaryoteshttp://westernrifleshooters.blogspot.com/2011/02/interview-with-stanley-kurtz.html

  • Cells that do not have a nucleus

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prokaryote


Eubacteria
Eubacteriahttp://westernrifleshooters.blogspot.com/2011/02/interview-with-stanley-kurtz.html

http://calexa.weebly.com/eubacteria.html


Cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteriahttp://westernrifleshooters.blogspot.com/2011/02/interview-with-stanley-kurtz.html

http://user.uni-frankfurt.de/~schauder/cyanos/cyanos.html


Archaeabacteria
Archaeabacteriahttp://westernrifleshooters.blogspot.com/2011/02/interview-with-stanley-kurtz.html

  • Methanogens – archaeabacteria that produces methane gas

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaea


Prochlorobacteria
Prochlorobacteriahttp://westernrifleshooters.blogspot.com/2011/02/interview-with-stanley-kurtz.html

http://jk169.k12.sd.us/proteobacteria.htm


Bacteria e coli
Bacteria (E. Coli)http://westernrifleshooters.blogspot.com/2011/02/interview-with-stanley-kurtz.html

  • One-celled prokaryotes

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria


They do not contain the complex range of membrane enclosed organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

http://www.weblife.org/humanure/images/fig3-1.jpg


Eubacteria structure
Eubacteria Structure organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

  • generally surrounded by a cell wall made of carbohydrates

  • there is a cell membrane which surrounds the cytoplasm

  • long whip like flagella protrude from the membrane through the cell wall


Eubacteria1
Eubacteria organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5a/Average_prokaryote_cell-_en.svg/494px-Average_prokaryote_cell-_en.svg.png


They use photosynthesis to get energy
They use photosynthesis to get energy organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/webb/BOT311/Cyanobacteria/CyanoHyellaStella300Crop.jpg


Fresh and saltwater land hot water arctic grow on snow
Fresh and saltwater, land, hot water, arctic, grow on snow organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

http://lyxia.us/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/cyanobacteria-1.jpg


Methanogens are archaebactria that produce methane gas
Methanogens are archaebactria that produce methane gas organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

http://www.daviddarling.info/images/methanogens_large.jpg


Prochlorobacteria more related to chloroplasts
prochlorobacteria organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cellsmore related to chloroplasts

http://jk169.k12.sd.us/images/Escherichia_coli1355024.300a[1].jpg


Bacteria identification
Bacteria Identification organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

  • cell shape

  • Cell Wall

  • Bacterial Movement

  • How the obtain energy


Bacterial shape
Bacterial shape organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

https://benchprep.com/blog/ap-biology-diversity-of-organisms-kingdoms-part-i/


Gram staining
Gram Staining organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

  • There are two types of dye, The bacterial cells with only one thick layer of carbohydrate and protein molecules outside the cell membrane took up the crystal violet. The bacterial cells that have lipid and carbohydrate molecules appear red under the microscope and are gram negative


Gram staining1
Gram Staining organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram_staining


Bacterial movement
Bacterial movement organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

  • propelled by flagella

  • spiral forward

  • glide slowly

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/15/Flagellum_base_diagram_en.svg/629px-Flagellum_base_diagram_en.svg.png


  • Phototrophic autotrophs organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells-prokaryotes that trap the energy of sunlight

  • Chemotrophic autotrophs-prokaryotes that live in harsh environments and obtain E from inorganic molecules

  • Chemotrophic heterotrophs-bacteria that obtain energy by taking in organic molecules and then breaking them down and absorbing them

  • Phototrophic heterotrophs- use sunlight for Energy but also need organic compounds for nutrients


Obligate aerobes tuberculosis
Obligate aerobes (tuberculosis) organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

  • Require oxygen

http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Tuberculosis.aspx


Obligate anaerobes clostridium botulinum
Obligate anaerobes ( organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cellsClostridium botulinum)

  • Bacteria that do not require oxygen

http://www.agefotostock.com/en/Stock-Images/Rights-Managed/BSI-0217005


Toxins
Toxins organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

  • Poisons that can cause botulism which is a rare form of food poisoning (paralysis)

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/06/080616115718.htm


Facultative anaerobes gardnerella
Facultative anaerobes ( organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cellsGardnerella)

  • Bacteria that can survive with or without oxygen

http://www.redorbit.com/education/reference_library/health_1/bacteria/2584148/gardnerella/


Binary fission
Binary Fission organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

  • Bacterial cell replicates its DNA and divides in half (asexual reproduction)

http://biology.about.com/od/cellanatomy/ss/prokaryotes_2.htm


Conjugation
Conjugation organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

  • Genetic information from one bacteria is transferred to the other (sexual reproduction)

http://partsregistry.org/Conjugation


Endospore
Endospore organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

  • Spore formed when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and portion of its cytoplasm (Not reproduction)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Electron_micrograph_of_endospore_of_the_bacterium_Carboxydothermus_hydrogenoformans.png


Bacteria food production
Bacteria food production organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

http://www.jgi.doe.gov/News/news_10_17_06.html


Symbiotic relationship e coli
Symbiotic relationship (E. Coli) organelles that are found in most eukaryotic cells

  • Both organisms benefit

http://blog.search-mojo.com/2010/10/26/googles-symbiotic-relationship-with-seos-yeah-right/


They are able to break down cellulose due to the bacteria that make enzymes that allow animals to digest cellulose

http://www.quia.com/files/quia/users/lmcgee/biochemistry/cellulose-cows.gif


They recycle and decompose or break down dead material
They recycle and decompose, or break down dead material that make enzymes that allow animals to digest cellulose


Saprophyte bacteria
Saprophyte bacteria that make enzymes that allow animals to digest cellulose

  • Bacteria that digest organic matter and break it down to simpler substances

http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/lessons/prokaryotes/Pages/BacterialBlotch.aspx


Bacteria sewage decomposition
Bacteria sewage decomposition that make enzymes that allow animals to digest cellulose

http://healthnews-younis.blogspot.com/2010/12/turning-up-heat-on-antibiotic-resistant.html


Nitrogen fixation rhizobium
Nitrogen Fixation ( that make enzymes that allow animals to digest celluloseRhizobium)

http://textbookofbacteriology.net/Impact_2.html


17 3 diseases caused by viruses and prokaryotes
17-3 Diseases Caused by Viruses and Prokaryotes that make enzymes that allow animals to digest cellulose

  • Only a small number of viruses and prokaryotes are capable of disease in humans

  • Pathogens-disease producing agents

  • Its basically a battle for nutrients between the host cell and the microorganism


Pathogens
Pathogens that make enzymes that allow animals to digest cellulose

http://www.beltina.org/health-dictionary/pathogen-definition-what-is.html


Viruses and disease
Viruses and Disease that make enzymes that allow animals to digest cellulose

  • Viruses are the cause of such human diseases as small pox, polio, measles, AIDS, mumps, influenza, yellow fever, rabies, and the common cold

  • Caused from the virus life cycle

  • The only successful protection against them is preventing their infection


  • The immune system must be stimulated to prevent the infection

  • They stimulate them with vaccines which inject a weakened or killed disease causing virus

  • Once a viral infection starts, there is little science can do to stop the disease

  • They mainly treat the symptoms


Vaccines
Vaccines infection

http://www.fbresearch.org/TwoColumnWireframe.aspx?pageid=123


Interferons
Interferons infection

  • These are small proteins that are produced by the body’s cells when the cells are infected by viruses

  • Seem to make it more difficult for the virus to spread

  • Could be used to fight viruses


Interferons1
Interferons infection

http://www.odec.ca/projects/2007/sank7b2/page7.html


Cancer
Cancer infection

  • Some viruses cause cancer in animals called oncogenic viruses

  • Virus adds certain genes to the cell to make it a cancer cell

  • Not very common

  • The Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV) is an example in chickens


Rous sarcoma virus
Rous Sarcoma Virus infection

http://dict.youdao.com/w/rous_sarcoma_virus/#q%3Drous_sarcoma_virus


Bacteria and disease
Bacteria and Disease infection

  • Only a few bacteria produce diseases

  • Some of the diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria include diphtheria, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, tetanus, leprosy, syphilis, cholera, and bubonic plague


Bacterial diseases
Bacterial Diseases infection

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria


  • Cause disease in two general ways: infection

    • May damage the cells and tissues of infected organisms directly by breaking down its living cells to use for food

    • May release toxins that travel throughout the body, interfering with the host

  • Many diseases can be prevented by stimulating the immune system as well



Antibiotics
Antibiotics once infected

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/antibiotics.html


Controlling bacteria sterilization
Controlling Bacteria: Sterilization once infected

  • Sterilization destroys living bacteria with great heat or chemicals

  • Bacteria cannot survive high temps so most can be killed boiling water

  • Disinfectants are another good way to sterilize many places


Sterilization
Sterilization once infected

http://preparednesspro.wordpress.com/2009/08/11/myths-and-facts-of-water-storage/water-storage-myths-boiling-water/

http://ykalaska.wordpress.com/2006/05/03/disinfectants-for-camp-field-and-household/


Food processing
Food Processing once infected

  • Bacteria are everywhere including in our food (if we don’t eat it they will which spoils it)

  • Refrigeration causes bacteria to not grow as fast

  • Many foods are sterilized by boiling, frying, or steaming (kills bacteria


Food spoilage
Food Spoilage once infected

http://chefsblade.monster.com/training/articles/221-a-guide-to-food-pathogens



Canning
Canning indefinitely

http://www.foodinjars.com/2011/08/canning-101-tomato-float-sauce-separation-and-loss-of-liquid/


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