Mountain building and crustal deformation
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Mountain Building and Crustal Deformation . Economic Consequences of Geologic Structures. Tracing Coal Seams, Aquifers, etc. Ore Deposits are often localized along faults and folds Petroleum Traps. Isostasy . Thickness and Density. Isostatic Rebound in Canada .

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Economic consequences of geologic structures
Economic Consequences of Geologic Structures

  • Tracing Coal Seams, Aquifers, etc.

  • Ore Deposits are often localized along faults and folds

  • Petroleum Traps





Mountain building orogeny
Mountain Building (Orogeny)

Orogeny is the variety of processes that occur during mountain-building, including:

  • Distinctive Patterns of Deposition

  • Deformation

  • Metamorphism

  • Intrusions

  • Volcanic Activity

  • Oceanic Trenches

  • Seismic Activity












Which way was up
Which Way was Up?

Sedimentary Structures are governed by:

  • Gravity

  • Exposure to the Surface

    They all have a “right way up”


Foliation
Foliation

Foliation is a sheetlike structure that forms when rocks are deformed.


Foliation1
Foliation

In every case, the foliation is:

  • In the direction of least resistance

  • at right angles to the direction of greatest compression.




Folds and foliation1
Folds and Foliation

  • On a small scale (microscopic to centimeters), foliation forms

  • On a large scale (centimeters to kilometers), rocks fold.

  • Both foliation and the axial plane of the fold are at right angles to the direction of greatest compression.






How geologists use these clues
How Geologists Use These Clues Structures

  • Here's an outcrop that might be seen in the field.


How geologists use these clues1
How Geologists Use These Clues Structures

  • We can mentally fill out the rest of the fold.

  • Note that we still have no idea how big the fold is, only what kind it is.


Complex folds scotland
Complex Folds, Scotland Structures

Complex Folds, Scotland





Domes and basins
Domes and Basins Structures


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