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The Road to War. 1933-1940. The Development of Totalitarianism. Kellog-Briand Pact-never make war again and to settle all disputes by peaceful means (1929)-still permitted a defensive war worked in a world that wanted peace-3 countries do not-Japan, Germany, Italy

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The road to war

The Road to War


The development of totalitarianism
The Development of Totalitarianism

  • Kellog-Briand Pact-never make war again and to settle all disputes by peaceful means (1929)-still permitted a defensive war

  • worked in a world that wanted peace-3 countries do not-Japan, Germany, Italy

  • Japan-attacks Manchuria-September 1931

  • Stimson Doctrine-US would not recognize any gains made by force

  • Japan ignores and sets up a puppet state

  • The League of Nations criticizes-Japan quits the League

  • Japan begins to build its Navy

  • <Henry L. Stimson

The development of totalitarianism1
The Development of Totalitarianism

  • Fascism develops in Europe

  • 1. <Adolf Hitler-der Fuhrer- in Germany (1933)

  • 2. Benito Mussolini in Italy (1922)

  • 3. Francisco Franco in Spain (1939)

  • Totalitarianism-dictatorships with complete control over the people of a Nation

  • Fascism-state more important than the individual and a nation should have a strong central government headed by a dictator

  • Nazi Party-Hitler’s Party in Germany-Nationalist Socialist German Worker’s Party

The aggressions begin
The Aggressions Begin

  • Italy attacks Ethiopia (1934)-Mussolini wants to regain the Roman Empire

  • by 1936-Ethiopia is annexed

  • League of Nations does not act-made Italy the aggressor, applied sanctions, arms embargo, boycott

  • League is useless for preventing war

  • <Benito Musslini-il Duce

The aggression begins
The Aggression Begins

  • Hitler Arms the Rhineland (1935)

  • 1936-sends troops in

  • if Britain and France moved troops in-Hitler would have probably backed down

  • no action taken

  • <Map of Germany 1939

  • Slide presentation of Hitler’s Aggression to simulate Foreign Policy advisors

America stays neutral
America stays Neutral

  • US recognizes the USSR-1933-used to try to check Japanese in Asia

  • Reciprocal Trade Agreements (1934)-President has the power to lower tariffs by 50%-Secretary of State-Cordell Hull-signed more than 20 of these

  • Good Neighbor Policy-continued the policy of Coolidge and Hoover

  • <Secretary of State Cordell Hull


  • Nye Committee-Gerald Nye-Senator from North Dakota

  • 1934-investigated the reasons the United States entered World War I

  • findings-certain American Corporations, particularly those in banking and munitions, made a lot of money off WWI

  • ???Corporations urged Wilson for war to profit

  • “merchants of death” to a lot of corporation

  • Gerald Nye

Neutrality acts
Neutrality Acts

  • First in 1935-once President declared a country at war, the United States could not ship or sell arms to them

  • Second in 1936-prohibits extending loans and credit as well

  • Third in 1937-extended to those in Civil War (Spanish Civil War)-1st and 2nd permanent

  • goods other than weapons on <“cash and carry” basis

Spanish civil war
Spanish Civil War

  • Army uprising against the Republican Government

  • Francisco Franco as a fascist leader backed by Hitler and Mussolini

  • vs. The Republican Government backed by the Soviets-US could not give full support because they looked Communist

  • US-Abraham Lincoln Brigade-3000 volunteers on Republican side

  • Hitler and Mussolini cement friendship for the Rome-Berlin Axis alliance

  • "Our regime is based on bayonets and blood, not on hypocritical elections."Francisco Franco

Isolationism challenged
Isolationism challenged

  • “China Incident”-July 1937-China and Japan clash near Beijing-Japan took most of coast

  • US in favor of China-Japan called it an incident-Neutrality Act not invoked-

  • continue sending supplies, helped China to arm- built the Burma Road-700 miles long supply highway

  • Map of China Incident-Japan aggression

Isolationism challenged1
Isolationism Challenged

  • <Quarantine Speech-October 5, 1937

  • expressed fears of the international situation and behavior of Germany, Italy, Japan

  • wanted to isolate the aggressors with other Democracies in the world

  • most disagree with this position-not neutral anymore

Isolationism challenged2
Isolationism Challenged

  • <Panay Incident-December 12, 1937

  • Yangtze River-gunboat, and 3 oil tankers escorting-attacked without warning-2 servicemen killed-

  • legal right to be there-Japan apologized at once-pay and punish those responsible

  • US accepts-poll stated, one month after, 70% felt better to leave China than fight the Japanese

The crisis deepens
The Crisis Deepens

  • Hitler takes Austria in 1938- “Anchluss”- without opposition

  • Hitler threatens Czechoslovakia -excuse-3m Germans lived in the Sudetenland

  • Czechs refuse to give in-Soviet Union and French alliances

  • Hitler ultimatum-surrender or fight

  • Hitler agrees to a conference to be held in Munich-includes: <Hitler, Prime Minister-Neville Chamberlain (England), Premier Edward Daladier

  • dismember Czechoslovakia-Sudetenland to Germany, Poland and Hungary took some

  • postponed the war-APPEASEMENT

  • Neville Chamberlain Speech

Hitler begins the final solution
Hitler begins the Final Solution

  • Persecution of the Jews-

  • 1933-national economic boycott

  • forbidden to enter or remain in the medical field, legal profession, or obtain business licenses

  • All Jewish teachers and civil service employees were fired

  • The Nuremberg Laws-1935-took away political rights and citizenship

  • expelled from German Schools and denied Medical care

  • segregated on trains and other transportation

  • <Nazi Book Burning of Jewish and Communist Authors in 1933

The beginning of the final solution
The Beginning of the Final Solution

  • The Nuremberg Laws (Continued)

  • Could only shop during special hours and had to be off the street at 8 PM

  • <all Jews over the age of 6 had to wear a star of David on their chest

  • Jews and “Aryans” (non-Jews to Hitler) were prevented from marrying

  • Jews who left Germany were not allowed to take any property

  • later-Jews had to register everything they owned

The beginning of the final solution1
The Beginning of the Final Solution

  • Produced refugees-many German Jews hoped Nazis would go away

  • Great Britain agrees to accept 80,000 refugees-60,000 fled to US-little or no help from Roosevelt-already had a huge unemployment problem

  • those who did leave included-to US-<Albert Einstein, conductor Arturo Toscanini, author Thomas Mann, physicist Enrico Fermi, architect Walter Gropius

  • Albert Einstein speaking on the Holocaust

The crisis deepens1
The Crisis Deepens

  • Japan continues assault on China, Indochina, and threatened the Philippines and East Indies

  • Hitler takes the rest of Czechoslovakia in 1938

  • Hitler threatens Poland-Allies draw the line here

  • Soviet Union-<Josef Stalin distrusts Britain and France

  • feared they wanted USSR to take full impact of Hitler attack

  • August 23, 1939-signs the Non-aggression Pact with Hitler

  • Hitler no longer fears Soviets

  • demands land from Poland (refuses) -attacks Poland

World war ii begins
World War II Begins

  • On September 1, 1939- Hitler attacks Poland

  • Britain and France declared War on September 3, 1939

  • Roosevelt sided with the British but vowed to remain neutral

  • <invasion of Poland

The war in europe
The War in Europe

  • The Battle of France

  • April, 1940-Denmark and Norway are invaded

  • a month later-Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France

  • England’s Prime Minister-<Winston Churchill and France’s Premier Paul Reynard beg Roosevelt for help

  • can’t help them

  • Battle of France strategy and battle

The war in europe1
The War in Europe

  • France surrenders-Hitler gets same car on the same spot at the same time for France to sign an armistice in as in 1918

  • Terms of Armistice-Germany gets-North of the Loire River, entire Atlantic Coast, remainder would be a “self-governed” area called Vichy France

  • World is stunned by blitzkrieg of France-only Britain stood between Hitler and the United States

The war in europe2
The War in Europe

  • The Battle of Britain

  • Air war-summer and autumn of 1940

  • 2600 bombers-August 15-1000 bombed Britain

  • every night for 2 months-bombed London

  • Radar saved Britain

  • continue throughout the winter

  • Japan joins the Axis

  • <London during the Battle

  • Winston Churchill’s Speech

America prepares for war
America Prepares for War

  • US declares economic war

  • Roosevelt is so concerned with course of war-decides to break tradition

  • Runs for a third term-Republicans nominate <Wendell Wilkie-

  • Roosevelt wins on- “Your boys are not going to be sent to any foreign war.”