Long-Term Hydrocarbon Remediation Using Treatment Wetlands
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Long-Term Hydrocarbon Remediation Using Treatment Wetlands. Presented by: Scott Wallace, P.E. [email protected] (612) 802-2329. References for Industrial Wetland Design. Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF)

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Long-Term Hydrocarbon Remediation Using Treatment Wetlands

Presented by:

Scott Wallace, P.E.

[email protected]

(612) 802-2329

References for industrial wetland design
References for Industrial Wetland Design

  • Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF)

  • Small Scale Constructed Wetland Systems (Wallace & Knight, 2006)

  • Treatment Wetlands 2nd Edition

  • (Kadlec & Wallace, 2009)

Recent industrial wetland examples
Recent Industrial Wetland Examples

  • BP, Casper Wyoming Refinery, USA

  • BP, Lima Ohio, USA

  • ARCO Wellsville New York Refinery USA

  • Williams Pipeline, (Watertown, South Dakota) USA

  • El Paso Energy (El Dorado, Kansas) USA

  • Shell, Scotford I Upgrader, Alberta, Canada

  • Buffalo-Niagara International Airport, USA

  • Heathrow Airport, London UK

  • Edmonton Airport, Alberta, Canada

  • Occidental Petroleum, Cano Limon, Colombia

  • Rosebel Gold Mine, Suriname

  • Sangachal, Azerbaijan

Industries using wetlands
Industries Using Wetlands

  • Oil & Gas (upstream & downstream)

  • Chemical Manufacturing

  • Landfills

  • Mining

  • Food Processing

  • Airports

Types of treatment wetlands
Types of Treatment Wetlands

  • Surface Flow (SF)

  • Horizontal Subsurface Flow (HSSF)

  • Vertical Flow (VF)

  • Sludge Dewatering Reed Beds

  • Intensified Wetlands

    • Aerated (cold climates)

    • fill-and-drain (warm climates)

    • reactive media (ammonia, phosphorus, etc)

    • industrial wastewaters

Surface flow wetlands
Surface Flow Wetlands

Kadlec & Wallace, 2008

Surface flow wetlands1
Surface Flow Wetlands

Champion Paper, Pensacola Florida

Horizontal subsurface flow wetlands
Horizontal Subsurface Flow Wetlands

Wallace & Knight, 2006

Horizontal subsurface flow wetland
Horizontal Subsurface Flow Wetland

Wildflower Meadows: 90-person treatment system

Vertical flow wetland1
Vertical Flow Wetland

Rousillon, France

Sludge dewatering reed bed
Sludge Dewatering Reed Bed

Skovby, Denmark: 8000-person treatment wetland

Kadlec & Wallace, 2008

Main treatment mechanisms
Main Treatment Mechanisms

  • Adsorption of dissolved-phase hydrocarbons

    • Contaminant retention time much greater than hydraulic retention time

  • Microbial degradation of organic compounds

  • Settling of particulate compounds

  • Oxidation and reduction of nitrogen compounds

  • Precipitation of metals

  • Use of intensification methods (aeration and reactive medias to accelerate treatment)

Natural vs mechanical systems
Natural vs. Mechanical Systems

Energy and O&M Needs



Mechanical Treatment Systems

Intensified Wetlands

Natural Systems

Area Requirements



Treatment wetland design basis
Treatment Wetland Design Basis

  • Tanks-in-series, N typically ranges from 3 to 6

  • Value of N is different for reactive chemicals vs. tracers

  • Spatial variability of biodegradation rate represented by P

  • Important for complex organic chemistries (such as produced waters

Climate range of treatment wetlands
Climate Range of Treatment Wetlands

Wellsville, New York

Northern Sahara,


Bp casper wyoming refinery
BP – Casper, Wyoming Refinery

  • Operated 1912 to 1991

  • 37,000 m3 of LNAPL recovered to date

  • Extensive smear zone due to river flooding

  • 50 to 100 years to remediate site

  • High mountain west: -35oC

Casper reuse plan
Casper Reuse Plan

HSSF Wetlands

SF Wetlands

Casper pilot wetland system
Casper Pilot Wetland System

  • 4 cells

  • With and without insulating mulch

  • Vertical upward flow

  • With and without aeration

Phytokinetics, Inc.

Casper rate coefficients
Casper Rate Coefficients

kA, m/yr, based on 3 TIS

Wallace & Kadlec, 2005

Full size system from pilot data
Full-Size System from Pilot Data

Wallace & Kadlec, 2005

Casper benzene data 2004 2006
Casper Benzene Data 2004 - 2006

Benzene effluent at Outfall 001

consistently below detection levels

<0.01 mg/L

Wellsville treatment concept
Wellsville Treatment Concept

  • Cascade Aerators (iron oxidation)

  • Sedimentation Pond (iron precipitation and settling)

  • Surface Flow Wetlands (hydrocarbon removal)

  • Vertical Flow Wetlands (pH adjustment)

November 2008 start up
November 2008 Start Up

  • Cold climate design (ice formation)

  • Thermal calculations necessary

Surface flow wetlands hydrocarbon removal
Surface Flow Wetlands (Hydrocarbon Removal)

Vertical flow wetlands for alkalinity addition
Vertical Flow Wetlands for Alkalinity Addition

Wellsville New York

Wallace et al., 2011


  • Industrial treatment wetlands are already being used in North America, South America, Europe, Asia and Australia

  • Surface flow, horizontal subsurface flow, vertical flow, and intensified wetlands are all being used by industry

  • Use of wetlands for industrial treatment wetlands is increasing on two major fronts:

    • Range of applications in different industries

    • Construction of wetlands in different geographic regions

Thank you for your time
Thank you for your time

Treatment Wetlands for Industry