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OCR Examinations AS / A Level Physical Education AS 3875 A 7875 Module 2562 : Section B part 1 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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OCR Examinations AS / A Level Physical Education AS 3875 A 7875 Module 2562 : Section B part 1 Acquiring, Performing and Teaching Movement Skills. 27 - PERCEPTION AND SELECTIVE ATTENTION 28 - MEMORY SYSTEMS 29 - BASIC MODEL OF THE MEMORY PROCESS 30 - BASIC MODEL OF THE MEMORY PROCESS

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OCR Examinations AS / A Level Physical Education AS 3875 A 7875 Module 2562 : Section B part 1

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Ocr examinations as a level physical education as 3875 a 7875 module 2562 section b part 1

OCR ExaminationsAS / A Level Physical EducationAS 3875A 7875

Module 2562 : Section B

part 1

Acquiring, Performing and Teaching Movement Skills


Index

27 - PERCEPTION AND SELECTIVE ATTENTION

28 - MEMORY SYSTEMS

29 - BASIC MODEL OF THE MEMORY PROCESS

30 - BASIC MODEL OF THE MEMORY PROCESS

31 - IMPROVING RETENTION

32 - IMPROVING INFORMATION RETENTION

33 - REACTION TIME - MOVEMENT / RESPONSE TIME

34 - REACTION TIME - SIMPLE / CHOICE REACTION TIME

35 - PSYCHOLOGICAL REFRACTORY PERIOD

36 - FACTORS AFFECTING REACTION TIME

37 - THE ROLE OF ANTICIPATION

38 - IMPROVING RESPONSE TIMES

CUES / DECISION MAKING / ATTENTIONAL FOCUS

39 - FEEDBACK - IMPORTANCE

40 - FEEDBACK - INTRINSIC

41 - FEEDBACK

EXTRINSIC / KNOWLEDGE OF PERFORMANCE / RESULTS

42 - FUNCTIONS OF EXTRINSIC FEEDBACK

FEEDBACK DEPENDENCY

43 - FEEDBACK

CONCURRENT / TERMINAL / POSITIVE / NEGATIVE

44 - INFORMATION PROCESSING AND YOUR PPP

45 - MOTOR AND EXECUTIVE PROGRAMMES - SUBROUTINES

46 - MOTOR AND EXECUTIVE PROGRAMMES - DISCUS THROW

47 - MOTOR AND EXECUTIVE PROGRAMMES - TENNIS SERVE

48 - MOTOR CONTROL - OPEN LOOP CONTROL

49 - MOTOR CONTROL - CLOSED LOOP CONTROL

50 - SCHEMA (SCHMIDT’s THEORY)

51 - SCHEMA - RECALL SCHEMA

52 - SCHEMA - RECOGNITION SCHEMA

Index

3 - CHARACTERISTICS OF SKILL

4 - DEFINITIONS OF SKILL - CHARACTERISTICS OF SKILL

5 - DEFINITIONS OF SKILL

THE GUTHRIE KNAPP DEFINITION OF SKILL

6 - SKILL KEYWORDS

8 - CLASSIFICATIONS OF SKILL

GROSS - FINE (MUSCULAR CONTROL) CONTINUUM

9 - CLASSIFICATIONS OF SKILL

OPEN - CLOSED (ENVIRONMENTAL IFLUENCE) CONTINUUM

10 - CLASSIFICATIONS OF SKILL - DISCRETE - SERIAL - CONTINUOUS (CONTINUITY) CONTINUUM

11 - CLASSIFICATIONS OF SKILL

EXTERNALLY-PACED - SELF-PACED (PACING) CONTINUUM

12 - CLASSIFICATIONS OF SKILL

SIMPLE - COMPLEX (DIFFICULTY) CONTINUUM

13 - CLASSIFICATIONS OF SKILL

LOW - HIGH ORGANISATIONAL CONTINUUM

14 - CHARACTERISTICS OF ABILITY

PSYCHOMOTOR / PERCEPTUAL

15 - ABILITY - GROSS MOTOR / GENERAL / SPECIFIC / GROUPS

16 - SKILL DEVELOPMENT

COGNITIVE / ASSOCIATIVE / AUTONOMOUS

17 - SKILL, ABILITY AND YOUR PPP

18 - INFORMATION PROCESSING - BASIC MODEL

19 - INFORMATION PROCESSING - SCHMIDT’s MODEL

20 - INFORMATION PROCESSING - WELFORD’s MODEL

21 - INFORMATION PROCESSING - WELFORD’s MODEL

22 - INFORMATION PROCESSING - WHITING’S MODEL

23 - INFORMATION PROCESSING - WHITING`S MODEL

24 - ATTENTION

25 - LIMITED ATTENTIONAL CAPACITY THEORIES

SINGLE CHANNEL THEORY

26 - LIMITED ATTENTIONAL CAPACITY THEORIES

MULTIPLE CHANNEL THEORY

INDEX


Characteristics of skill

The Characteristics of Skilful Performance

CHARACTERISTICS OF SKILL


Definitions of skill

USES OF THE WORD SKILL

technique

example : feint or dodge

sport

example : classifications

quality

example : skilful performance

The Characteristics of Skilful Performance

DEFINITIONS OF SKILL

CHARACTERISTICS OF SKILL

  • consistent

    • can be repeated correctly

  • learned

    • skill has been practised until retained in long term memory

  • predetermined

    • the performer has a goal

  • aesthetic

    • the movement is pleasing and looks good

CHARACTERISTICS OF SKILL

  • efficient

    • no waste of energy

    • the movement seems effortless

  • coordinated

    • flowing and fluid movement

  • controlled

    • the performer has control over the movement

  • good technique

    • the movement follows an accepted correct technical model

SKILLED PERFORMERS

  • can vary the outcome

  • can vary the timing and scope of action

  • can focus attention appropriately

  • can anticipate


Definitions of skill1

THE GUTHRIE KNAPP DEFINITION OF SKILL

the learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum certainty often with the minimum outlay of time or energy or both

The Characteristics of Skilful Performance

DEFINITIONS OF SKILL

  • skill is learned

  • learning is a relatively permanent change in performance

  • performance is a temporary action


Skill keywords

BALANCE

a psychomotor ability - maintenance of the body’s centre of mass within the base of support to allow pause, change of direction, stillness

CLASSIFICATION OF SKILL

the means by which skills which have common characteristics are grouped together

CLOSED SKILL

a skill performed in a fixed environment, example : a discus throw

CONTINUOUS SKILLS

skills with no obvious beginnings and endings

CONTINUUM OF SKILLS

a range of skill characteristics

COORDINATION

a psychomotor ability which allows efficient transmission of information through the nervous system to create required movements

DISCRETE SKILLS

skills with clear beginnings and endings, example : discus throw

EXTERNALLY-PACED SKILLS

skills where the timing and form are determined by what is happening in the environment, example : receiving a pass from another player in a soccer game

The Characteristics of Skilful Performance

SKILL KEYWORDS


Skill keywords1

FINE SKILL

skills involving small movements of specific body parts, example : potting a ball at snooker

GROSS SKILL

involve large muscle groups and movements of the whole body, example : discus throw

LEARNING

a relatively permanent change of performance resulting from practice or experience

OPEN SKILLS

skills in which the form of the action is determined by the environment and therefore is constantly changing, example : receiving a pass from another player in a soccer game

SELF-PACED SKILLS

the performer has control over the rate at which the action takes place and also the timing of the start of the action, example : discus throw

SERIAL SKILLS

where several distinct elements are joined together to form an integrated movement, example : triple jump

The Characteristics of Skilful Performance

SKILL KEYWORDS


Classifications of skill

GROSS - FINE (MUSCULAR CONTROL) CONTINUUM

Classification of Movement Skills

CLASSIFICATIONS OF SKILL

GROSS FINE

weightjavelinnetballcricketgolften pin darts/

liftingthrow passstrokeshotbowling snooker

GROSS - FINE (MUSCULAR CONTROL) CONTINUUM

  • gross skills use large muscle movements

  • associated with :

    • strength

    • endurance

    • power

  • fine skills use small delicate muscle movements

  • associated with :

    • speed

    • accuracy

    • efficiency


Classifications of skill1

Classification of Movement Skills

CLASSIFICATIONS OF SKILL

OPEN - CLOSED (ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCE) CONTINUUM

OPEN CLOSED

soccersoccertennistennissoccershot

goal save passstrokeservepenaltyputt

OPEN - CLOSED (ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCE) CONTINUUM

  • open skills

    • require perceptual monitoring (the performer perceives the information which stimulates the skill response)

    • occur in an unpredictable environment

    • the form of action is constantly being varied according to what is happening around the performer

    • have no clear beginning or end and are usually externally paced

  • closed skills

    • are prelearned and habitual

    • usually occur in the autonomous phase of learning

    • have no external requirements

    • have a clear beginning and end

    • occur in a predictable environment

    • the technical requirements of the skill conform to a specific model


Classifications of skill2

Classification of Movement Skills

CLASSIFICATIONS OF SKILL

DISCRETE - SERIAL - CONTINUOUS (CONTINUITY) CONTINUUM

DISCRETE SERIAL CONTINUOUS

weightjavelinhigh basketballrunning

liftingthrowjump dribble

DISCRETE - SERIAL - CONTINUOUS (CONTINUITY) CONTINUUM

  • discrete skills

    • have a clear beginning and end

    • can be performed by themselves without linkage to other skills

    • the skill can be repeated but the performer starts again

  • serial skills

    • have a number of discrete skills

    • which are linked together into a performance consisting of several phases

  • continuous skills

    • cannot be split up into subroutines or easily distinguishable parts

    • but last a relatively long time

    • as long as the performer wishes


Classifications of skill3

EXTERNALLY-PACED - SELF-PACED (PACING) CONTINUUM

Classification of Movement Skills

CLASSIFICATIONS OF SKILL

EXTERNALLY-PACED SELF-PACED

yachting tennis soccerdivingtennis weight

receiving serve gameserve lifting

EXTERNALLY-PACED - SELF-PACED (PACING) CONTINUUM

  • externally-paced skills

    • the speed and precision with which the skill is executed

    • are controlled by the environment / surroundings of the performer

    • opposing teams or individuals in a game

    • or the weather or wind conditions

  • self-paced skills

    • the rate of action is controlled by the performer


Classifications of skill4

Classification of Movement Skills

CLASSIFICATIONS OF SKILL

SIMPLE - COMPLEX (DIFFICULTY) CONTINUUM

SIMPLE COMPLEX

sprinting throwingsnookergymnasticgymnastic

tumblefloor exercise

SIMPLE - COMPLEX (DIFFICULTY) CONTINUUM

  • simple skills

    • are straightforward skills

    • with few subroutines

    • requiring little concentration and cognitive activity on the part of the performer

  • complex skills

    • are complicated skills

    • requiring a lot of attention / practice

    • the complexity of which can be perceived differently by different individuals

    • require a large number of (interlinked) subroutines, some of which may be habitual and learned

    • which affects the ease with which the performer performs the skill


Classifications of skill5

Classification of Movement Skills

CLASSIFICATIONS OF SKILL

LOW - HIGH ORGANISATIONAL CONTINUUM

LOW ORGANISATION HIGH ORGANISATION

swimming cycling gymnastic move

strokepole vault

LOW - HIGH ORGANISATIONAL CONTINUUM

  • skills with low organisation

    • are uncomplicated and have little organisational structure

    • subroutines tend to be discrete

    • and may be practised separately

  • skills with high organisation

    • have a complex organisational structure

    • subroutines are closely linked

    • and cannot be practised separately (the skill must be practised as a whole)

    • require far more attention and concentration to be performed successfully


Characteristics of ability

Definitions and Characteristics of Abilities

CHARACTERISTICS OF ABILITY

ABILITY IS :

THE FOUNDATION

  • of the learning process

  • to be successful, a performer must have certain abilities

    GENETICALLY DETERMINED

  • we are born with our abilities

  • abilities are innate

  • some people can pick up skills easily, others have difficulty

    ENDURING

  • people usually continue to display their ability for a long time

    PSYCHOMOTOR ABILITY

  • enables a performer to process information about how and when he / she moves

    PERCEPTUAL ABILITY

  • this is the ability to sense and interpret sensory inputs

  • examples from :

    • coordination, reaction time, agility, depth perception, arm / hand steadiness, speed, balance, manual dexterity, aiming


Ability

Definitions and Characteristics of Abilities

ABILITY

GROSS MOTOR ABILITY

  • to be able to move in a coordinated muscle movements

  • examples from :

    • extent / dynamic flexibility

    • explosive, static, trunk strength

    • gross body equilibrium / coordination

    • stamina

    • limb speed

      GENERAL ABILITY

  • does not exist ?

    SPECIFIC ABILITY

  • skills require different abilities specific to each skill

    GROUPS OF ABILITIES

  • a good sportsperson may have many different groups of abilities


Skill development

Motor Skill Development

SKILL DEVELOPMENT

STAGES OF SKILL DEVELOPMENT / LEARNING

COGNITIVE

  • skill learning goals are set and learning is begun

  • improvement is rapid, but movements are jerky and uncoordinated

  • demands high attention and concentration

    ASSOCIATIVE

  • specific motor programmes and subroutines are developed relevant to sport

  • consistency and coordination improve rapidly, timing and anticipation improve

  • gross error detection and correction is practised, detailed feedback is utilised

  • improvement is less rapid

    AUTONOMOUS

  • performance almost automatic, performed easily without stress

  • high proficiency with habitual performance and attention demands reduced

  • emphasis on tactics / strategy

  • errors detected and correctedwithout help


Skill ability and your ppp

Motor Skill Development

SKILL, ABILITY AND YOUR PPP

WITHIN YOUR PPP YOU SHOULD :

  • analyse your sport as to its skill content

  • place skills in relevant continua

    • muscular involvement

    • environmental influence

    • continuity

    • pacing

    • difficulty

    • organisation

  • identify gross motor and psychomotor abilities which may be important within the skills within your chosen activity


Information processing basic model

Basic Models of Information Processing

INFORMATION PROCESSING - BASIC MODEL


Information processing schmidt s model

Basic Models of Information Processing

INFORMATION PROCESSING - SCHMIDT’s MODEL

STIMULUS

  • this is the input from the environment / surroundings

    STIMULUS IDENTIFICATION

  • refers to the reception and interpretation of sensory information

    RESPONSE SELECTION

  • is responsible for decision making

    RESPONSE PROGRAMMING

  • concerned with the sending of movement information via the nerves to the muscles

    OUTPUT

  • is movement resulting from the process


Information processing welford s model

Basic Models of Information Processing

INFORMATION PROCESSING - WELFORD’s MODEL


Information processing welford s model1

Basic Models of Information Processing

INFORMATION PROCESSING - WELFORD’s MODEL

DISPLAY

  • refers to the range of actions and things that are happening in the surrounding environment of the performer

    PERCEPTUAL MECHANISM

  • the part of the brain which perceives the surroundings

    DECISION MECHANISM

  • the part of the brain which makes decisions

    EFFECTOR MECHANISM

  • the part of the brain which carries out the decisions and sends messages to the limbs and parts of the body which act out the relevant skill

    INTRINSIC FEEDBACK

  • feedback as to what actually happens to the body via the proprioceptors which inform the brain about balance, muscle tensions, limb positions and angles

    EXTRINSIC FEEDBACK

  • feedback via the result (response) of the actions made

  • the results of which feed back as part of the display


Information processing whiting s model

Basic Models of Information Processing

INFORMATION PROCESSING - WHITING’S MODEL


Information processing whiting s model1

Basic Models of Information Processing

INFORMATION PROCESSING - WHITING`S MODEL

RECEPTOR SYSTEMS

  • refers to the sense organs which receive information

    PERCEPTUAL MECHANISM

  • the part of the brain which perceives the surroundings and gives them meaning

    TRANSLATORY MECHANISM

  • the part of the brain which makes decisions and sorts out and processes the few relevant bits of information

  • from the many inputs from the surroundings

    EFFECTOR MECHANISM

  • the part of the brain which carries out the decisions and sends messages to the limbs and parts of the body via the nervous system


Attention

Memory

ATTENTION

ATTENTION

  • relates to the amount of information we can cope with

  • since the amount of information we can attend to is limited

  • we have limited attentional capacity

  • the performer must therefore attend to only relevant information

  • and disregard irrelevant information

  • this is called selective attention

  • when some parts of a performance become automatic

  • the information relevant to those parts does not require attention

  • this gives the performer spare attentional capacity

  • which allows the performer to attend to new elements of a skill

  • such as tactics or anticipating the moves of an opponent

  • the coach will need to help the performer to make best use of spare attentional capacity

  • the coach will also need to direct the attention of the performer to enable him / her to concentrate and reduce the chance of attentional switching to irrelevant information or distractions


Limited attentional capacity theories

Memory

LIMITED ATTENTIONAL CAPACITY THEORIES

SINGLE CHANNEL THEORY

  • this theory says that a performer can only attend to one thing at a time

  • so information is processed sequentially

  • attentional switching would occur by transferring attention from one situation to another

  • so although attention would be shared between situations, only one would be attended to at a time (one then two then one then two …..)

  • therefore this can only be done if each situation requires small attentional capacity


Limited attentional capacity theories1

Memory

LIMITED ATTENTIONAL CAPACITY THEORIES

MULTIPLE CHANNEL THEORY

  • this theory says that so long as incoming information arrives along different channels

  • then the performer can attend to more than one task at a time

  • an advanced performer will need to attend to many different bits of information at a time

  • but as long as each item does not require much effort (which takes up attentional capacity) then this is possible

  • also most advanced players will process some information automatically which allows attentional capacity for other inputs


Perception and selective attention

Memory

PERCEPTION AND SELECTIVE ATTENTION

PERCEPTION

  • perception is stimulus identification

  • as information is received from the environment, the performer needs to make sense of it

  • to interpret it and identify the elements which are relevant and important

  • consists of three elements :

    • detection

    • comparison

    • recognition

      SELECTIVE ATTENTION

  • the process of sorting out relevant bits of information from the many which are received

  • attention passes the information to the short-term memory which gives time for conscious analysis

  • a good performer can focus totally on an important aspect of his / her skill

  • which can exclude other elements which may also be desirable

  • sometimes a performer may desire to concentrate on several different things at once


Memory systems

Memory

MEMORY SYSTEMS


Basic model of the memory process

Memory

BASIC MODEL OF THE MEMORY PROCESS

SENSORY INPUT

  • refers to the information received from the surroundings

    SHORT-TERM SENSORY STORAGE

  • the area of the brain which receives information and holds it for a short time (less than 1 second) prior to processing

  • information deemed unimportant is lost and forgotten and replaced by new information

    SELECTIVE ATTENTION

  • the process of sorting out relevant bits of information from the many which are received

    SHORT-TERM MEMORY

  • the part of the brain which keeps information for a short period (20 - 30 seconds) after it has been deemed worthy of attention

  • the STM can carry between 5 and 9 separate items of information

  • can be improved by chunking

  • the information can be used for problem solving

  • or passed on to the long term memory for permanent storage


Basic model of the memory process1

Memory

BASIC MODEL OF THE MEMORY PROCESS

LONG-TERM MEMORY

  • the part of the brain which retains information for long periods of time - up to the lifetime of the performer

  • very well learned information is stored

  • LTM is limitless and not forgotten

  • but may require a code for the information to be recalled

    PROCEDURAL MEMORY

  • this is memory of how to do something, which serves as a blueprint to enable you to repeat a movement

    SEMANTIC MEMORY

  • knowledge memory of facts and concepts

    EPISODIC MEMORY

  • memory of important occasions in your past life

    DECISION MAKING

  • the process by which desired outcomes are chosen

    FEEDBACK

  • the process of sending information back to the performer via the results of a movement or the position of the performer’s body


Improving retention

Memory

IMPROVING RETENTION


Improving information retention

Memory

IMPROVING INFORMATION RETENTION

KNOWING HOW

  • educate the performer about the details of a skill

  • explain what to do and how to do it

    BREVITY

  • be brief

  • do not overload the short-term memory which can only hold small amounts of data

    CLARITY

  • keep advice / instruction simple and clear (KISS - keep it simple stupid)

  • carefully separate similar skills to enable the performer to distinguish between them

    CHUNKING

  • more information can be held in STM if information is lumped together / chunked

    ORGANISATION

  • organise the process of learning to ensure the information is meaningful

    ASSOCIATION

  • link new information with old already learnt information

    PRACTICE

  • practice makes perfect

  • repetition of any information or skill will enable it to be remembered


Reaction time

Reaction Time

REACTION TIME

REACTION TIME (RT)

  • time between the onset of a stimulus and the start of the response

  • this is an inherent ability or trait

  • the stimulus could be :

    • kinaesthesia

    • hearing

    • touch

    • vision

    • pain

    • smell

  • from this list, the fastest reaction times occur to stimuli at the top of the list, the slowest to those at the bottom of the list

    MOVEMENT TIME

  • time it takes to complete the onset of a movement

    RESPONSE TIME

  • time it takes to process information and then to make a response

    RESPONSE TIME = REACTION TIME + MOVEMENT TIME


Reaction time1

Reaction Time

REACTION TIME

SIMPLE REACTION TIME

  • is relevant to a single stimulus and a single possible response

    CHOICE REACTION TIME

  • several stimuli are given but only one must be selected for response

  • the more choices a person has, the more information needs processing, and the longer it takes to process the information

  • the slower the reaction time

  • this is Hick’s Law - see graph below


Psychological refractory period

Reaction Time

PSYCHOLOGICAL REFRACTORY PERIOD

PSYCHOLOGICAL REFRACTORY PERIOD (PRP)

  • presentation of a second stimulus

  • will slow down the processing of information

  • causing a time lag (this is the PRP) between the relevant stimulus and an appropriate response

  • example : selling a dummy in Rugby

EXAMPLE

  • S1 (1st stimulus) would be thedummy

  • S2 (2nd stimulus) would be the definite move

  • if the dummy (S1) had been the only stimulus then the reaction would have been at time R1

  • in the meantime, S2 has happened, but the performer cannot begin his / her response to this until the full reaction R1 has been processed by the brain

  • so there is therefore a period of time (the PRP) after S2 but before the time break to R2 can begin

  • a person who can do a multiple dummy / shimmy (Mat Dawson / Jason Robinson) can leave opposition with no time to react and hence miss a tackle


Factors affecting reaction time

Reaction Time

FACTORS AFFECTING REACTION TIME

FACTORS AFFECTING REACTION TIME

  • age

    • the older we get, the slower our reaction times

  • gender

    • males have quicker reaction times than females

    • but reaction times reduce less with age for females

  • increase in stimulus intensity will improve reaction time

    • a louder bang will initiate the go more quickly than a less loud bang

  • tall people will have slower reactions than short people because of the greater distance the information has to travel from the performer’s brain to the active muscles

    • short sprinters tend to win 60m races

  • arousal levels affect reaction times which are best when the performer is alert but not over aroused

  • the performer must attend to the most important cues (which act as a stimulus)

  • factors like body language / position might give a cue which enables the performer to anticipate a stimulus

  • anticipation of an opponents play by identifying favourite strokes or positions, particularly if the play involves an attempted dummy or fake


The role of anticipation

Reaction Time

THE ROLE OF ANTICIPATION

ANTICIPATION

  • the ability to predict future events from early signals or past events

  • reaction time can be speeded up if the performer learns to anticipate certain actions

  • good performers start running motor programmes before the stimulus is fully recognised

  • they anticipate the strength, speed and direction of a stimulus

  • this would enable a performer to partially eliminate the PRP (psychological refractory period)

  • however, opponents will also be trying to anticipate

  • opponents reaction times can be increased by increasing the number of choices of stimulus they have

  • increasing the number of fakes or dummies (Dawson / Robinson)


Improving response times

Reaction Time

IMPROVING RESPONSE TIMES

DETECTING THE CUE

  • sort out the stimulus (starter’s gun) from the background (spectator noise)

    DETECTING RELEVANT CUES

  • pick out relevant stimulus from other possible ones - choice reaction time reduced by eliminating alternative choices

    DECISION MAKING

  • work on set pieces in open skill situations so that an ‘automatic’ complex response can be made to a simple open stimulus

    CHANGE IN ATTENTIONAL FOCUS

  • practice switch of concentration quickly from one situation (opponents in defence) to another (field of play in attack)

    CONTROLLING ANXIETY

  • anxiety would increase response times - reduce by calming strategies

    CREATING OPTIMUM MOTIVATION

  • psyching up

    WARM-UP

  • ensure that sense organs and nervous system are in optimum state to transmit information and muscles to act on it


Feedback

Feedback

FEEDBACK

FEEDBACK

  • information which is used during and after an action or movement

    THE IMPORTANCE OF FEEDBACK

  • visual feedback for the beginner helps the performer to gain insight into a performance and its quality

  • demonstration of faults and corrections as feedback should be correct, since the performer will attempt to imitate the demonstration

  • verbal feedback should be restricted during the early stages of learning since too much information can confuse the performer

  • during the later stages of learning, the performer should have extra attentional capacity which should enable greater detail to be communicated

  • asking questions about the feelings involved in a performance is a form of feedback

  • the importance of feedback is high to the coach (or teacher) teaching a performer skills since knowledge of performance is a way of improving skill levels


Feedback1

Feedback

FEEDBACK

TYPES OF FEEDBACK

INTRINSIC FEEDBACK

  • this is sensory information

    • from the performer’s own sensory system

  • which normally occurs when individuals produce movement

  • intrinsic feedback received from outside the body is known as exteroceptive feedback

    • sight - the view of other competitors in a game

    • hearing - the sounds of crowd

    • smell - of other competitors!

  • intrinsic feedback from within the body is known as proprioceptive feedback

    • proprioception - the position and angles of limbs and tension in muscles


Feedback2

Feedback

FEEDBACK

TYPES OF FEEDBACK

EXTRINSIC FEEDBACK

  • KNOWLEDGE OF PERFORMANCE

  • information about a performance (its quality / rhythm / aesthetics)

    • from a coach

    • from video

    • from the press / TV

  • KNOWLEGDE OF RESULTS

  • information about the outcome of a performance

    • success or failure

    • distance / height / time

  • this information can be from a number of sources

    • coach

    • video

    • press / TV


Functions of extrinsic feedback

Feedback

FUNCTIONS OF EXTRINSIC FEEDBACK

MOTIVATIONAL

  • success is motivational

  • failure can act as a spur to motivation

    REINFORCING

  • behaviour that is rewarded tends to be repeated

  • so praise for a correct performance will act as positive reinforcement

  • which will influence the performer to desire to repeat the correct performance

    INFORMATIONAL

  • feedback provides information about errors hence the performer will be able to correct errors

    FEEDBACK DEPENDENCY

  • some performers can become dependent on feedback

    • example : from a coach or significant other about the quality of performance or technical competence

  • if this feedback is withdrawn or cannot be given then performance can deteriorate

    • as in a field event athlete in a major games who cannot function without feedback from a coach about his / her technique

    • and who therefore will fail


Feedback3

Feedback

FEEDBACK

TYPES OF FEEDBACK

CONCURRENT FEEDBACK

  • occurs during a performance

  • has the aim of improving skills or techniques while a performer is in action

    TERMINAL FEEDBACK

  • occurs after a performance has finished

  • is important because it strengthens the schema in learning

    POSITIVE FEEDBACK

  • is feedback which gives information aimed at a constructive development of performance

  • positive reinforcement, praise and encouragement about good performances

  • the knowledge from poor performances which gives insight about errors and their possible correction

    NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

  • is information which could depress performance

  • negative reinforcement, negative criticism about poor performances


Information processing and your ppp

Information Processing

INFORMATION PROCESSING AND YOUR PPP

WITHIN YOUR PPP YOU SHOULD :

  • apply one information processing model to your chosen activity


Motor and executive programmes

Motor and Executive Programmes

MOTOR AND EXECUTIVE PROGRAMMES

MOTOR PROGRAMME

  • defined as a set of movements stored as a whole in the long-term memory

  • contains all the information required to make a movement :

    • which muscles to use

    • the order in which muscles are used

    • the phasing and degree of contraction of muscles

      EXECUTIVE PROGRAMME

  • enables a skill to be performed

  • can be made up of a large number of subroutines

  • must be adaptable so that it can be altered when the environment / surroundings change

    SUBROUTINES

  • component parts of an executive programme

  • structured in layers

    • some subroutines can be in turn broken down into further subroutines which form smaller parts of a skill

  • each subroutine is a short fixed sequence

  • which when fully learned can be performed automatically

  • without conscious control


Motor and executive programmes1

Motor and Executive Programmes

MOTOR AND EXECUTIVE PROGRAMMES

STRUCTURE OF EXECUTIVE PROGRAMME FOR A DISCUS THROW


Motor and executive programmes2

Motor and Executive Programmes

MOTOR AND EXECUTIVE PROGRAMMES

STRUCTURE OF EXECUTIVE PROGRAMME FOR A TENNIS SERVE


Motor control

Motor Control

MOTOR CONTROL

OPEN LOOP CONTROL

  • this applies to executive programmes whose subroutines are simple and well-learned

  • and are automatic (no conscious thought is necessary)

  • they are then completed rapidly without time for feedback

  • and apply to closed and self-paced skills

  • examples :

    • tennis serve

    • discus throw


Motor control1

Motor Control

MOTOR CONTROL

CLOSED LOOP CONTROL

  • this applies to ongoing movements

  • in which only part of the information necessary to complete a movement is sent to effector organs (neuromuscular system)

  • the remaining information is sent following feedback via kinaesthesis

  • information about balance and body position can be used to change these factors during a movement

  • examples :

    • riding a bike

    • performing a gymnastic move

    • performing a complex dive


Schema schmidt s theory

Motor Control

SCHEMA (SCHMIDT’s THEORY)

SCHEMA THEORY

  • explains how sports performers can undertake so many actions with very little conscious control

  • the long-term memory isn’t big enough to store all the motor programmes required under the open and closed loop theories

  • schema theory says that generalised motor programmes exist which can be modified by taking in information as a skill is performed

  • the LTM therefore has to store far fewer motor programmes

  • since any new movement can be performed by running a schema which closely matches the needs of the new movement

  • the bigger the schema the more efficient the movement

  • large amounts of varied practice are needed to improve a schema

  • feedback is very important to correct and update a schema


Schema

Motor Control

SCHEMA

SCHEMA

  • a schema is the information about :

    • where the performer is (knowledge of the environment)

    • what the performer has to do to perform successfully (response specifications)

    • what a movement feels like (sensory consequences)

    • what happens when the performer responds (response outcomes)

  • which is stored and used to update a motor programme when used next

RECALL SCHEMA

  • this is all the information needed to start a relevant movement

  • the knowledge of the environment (initial conditions)

    • playing conditions (pitch, playing surface, weather)

    • positions of team mates and opposition

    • condition of equipment (kit, bike, car)

  • the response specifications (the correct technical model)

    • speed and force required

    • size and shape of movement required

    • techniques and styles used

  • used for quick ballistic movements when there isn’t enough time to process feedback


Schema1

Motor Control

SCHEMA

RECOGNITION SCHEMA

  • information needed to correct errors and remember correct performance

  • information about evaluating the response

  • the sensory consequences (knowledge of performance)

    • the feeling and look of the performance

  • the response outcomes (movement outcomes)

    • the results of performance

    • knowledge of results (how far / fast / many)

  • used when there is enough time to process feedback

  • or for evaluating performance


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