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Third Law of Thermodynamics. Third Law of Thermodynamics. No finite sequence of cyclic processes can succeed in cooling a body to absolute zero. Nernst Postulate (Weak Form). The entropy change associated with any condensed system undergoing a reversible isothermal process

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Third law of thermodynamics
Third Law of Thermodynamics

Third Law of Thermodynamics

No finite sequence of cyclic processes can succeed in

cooling a body to absolute zero.

Nernst Postulate (Weak Form)

The entropy change associated with any condensed

system undergoing a reversible isothermal process

approaches zero as temperature approaches 0 K,

where condensed system refers to liquids and

solids.

Walther Nernst

(1864 – 1941)


Nernst Postulate (Strong Form)

The entropy of all perfectly crystalline substances is

zero at absolute zero.

Max Planck

(1858-1947)



Entropy of substances
Entropy of Substances

Tabulated Results

Function of Molecular Size

Species So(298) J/K molSpecies So(298) J/K mol

Li 29.1 HF 173.7

Na 51.4 HCl 186.8

K 64.7 HBr 198.6

Rb 69.5 HI 206.3

Cs 85.2

Function of Molecular Complexity

Species So(298) J/K molSpecies So(298) J/K mol

NO 211 CH4 186

NO2 246 C2H6 230

N2O4 304 C3H8 270

C4H10 310


Residual entropy
Residual Entropy

Ice I Structure

Ice II Structure


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