urinary system
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Urinary System

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 143

Urinary System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 99 Views
  • Uploaded on

Urinary System. Introduction. Consists of Two kidneys Two ureters One urinary bladder One urethra. Introduction. Urine is excreted from each kidney through its ureter and is stored in the urinary bladder. Introduction. Urine is expelled from the body through the urethra.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Urinary System' - kelsie-ball


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
introduction
Introduction
  • Consists of
  • Two kidneys
  • Two ureters
  • One urinary bladder
  • One urethra
introduction1
Introduction
  • Urine is excreted from each kidney through its ureter and is stored in the urinary bladder
introduction2
Introduction
  • Urine is expelled from the body through the urethra
anatomy of kidneys
Anatomy of Kidneys
  • Retroperitoneal organs
external anatomy of kidneys
External Anatomy of Kidneys
  • Hilus – A vertical fissure near the center of the concave medial border
external anatomy of kidneys1
External Anatomy of Kidneys
  • Ureters leave and blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and exit at the hilus
internal anatomy of kidneys
Internal Anatomy of Kidneys
  • Consists of
  • Cortex
  • Medulla
  • Pyramids
  • Papillae
  • Columns
  • Minor and Major calyces
  • Renal pelvis
internal anatomy of kidneys1
Internal Anatomy of Kidneys
  • Nephron – functional unit of the kidney
blood and nerve supply of the kidneys
Blood and Nerve Supply of the Kidneys
  • Blood enters the kidney through the renal artery
blood and nerve supply of the kidneys1
Blood and Nerve Supply of the Kidneys
  • Blood exits via the renal vein
nephrons
Nephrons
  • Consists of
  • Renal corpuscle
  • Renal tubule
renal corpuscle
Renal Corpuscle
  • Where fluid is filtered
renal corpuscle1
Renal Corpuscle

Consists of

  • Glomerulus
  • Glomerular Capsule
renal corpuscle2
Renal Corpuscle
  • Glomerulus – capillary knot
renal corpuscle3
Renal Corpuscle
  • The glomerular capsule consists of
  • Visceral layer
  • Parietal layer
  • Capsular Space
renal corpuscle4
Renal Corpuscle
  • The visceral layer consists of modified simple squamous epithelial cells called podocytes
renal corpuscle5
Renal Corpuscle
  • The parietal layer consists of simple squamous epithelium and forms the outer wall of the capsule
renal corpuscle6
Renal Corpuscle
  • Fluid filtered from the glomerular capillaries enters the capsular space
renal corpuscle7
Renal Corpuscle
  • Capsular space – the space between the two layers of the glomerular capsule
renal tubule
Renal Tubule
  • Filtered fluid passes through here
nephron
Nephron
  • Renal tubule
  • Proximal convoluted tubule
  • Loop of Henle
  • Distal convoluted tubule
nephron1
Nephron
  • Distal convoluted tubules of several nephrons drain into to a single collecting duct
nephron2
Nephron
  • Many collecting ducts drain into a small number of papillary ducts
nephron3
Nephron
  • These empty urine into the minor calyces
nephron4
Nephron
  • Loop of henle consists of
  • Descending limb
  • Thin ascending limb
  • Thick ascending limb
nephron5
Nephron
  • Two types of nephrons
  • Cortical nephron
  • Juxtamedullary nephron
cortical nephron
Cortical Nephron
  • Has its glomerulus in the outer portion of the cortex
cortical nephron1
Cortical Nephron
  • And a short loop of Henle that penetrates only into the outer region of the medulla
juxtamedullary nephron
Juxtamedullary Nephron
  • Has its glomerulus deep in the cortex close to the medulla
juxtamedullary nephron1
Juxtamedullary Nephron
  • Its long loop of Henle stretches through the medulla and almost reaches the papilla
renal tubule and collecting duct
Renal Tubule and Collecting Duct
  • Most of the cells of the distal convoluted tubule have receptors for ADH and aldosterone
juxtaglomerular apparatus jga
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JGA)
  • Helps regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
juxtaglomerular apparatus jga1
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JGA)
  • Consists of
  • Juxtaglomerular cells
  • Macula Densa
juxtaglomerular cells
Juxtaglomerular Cells
  • Located on an afferent arteriole
macula densa
Macula Densa
  • Located on the distal convoluted abutting the JG cells
renal physiology
Renal Physiology
  • Nephrons and collecting ducts perform three basic processes while producing urine
renal physiology1
Renal Physiology
  • Glomerular filtration
  • Tubular secretion
  • Tubular reabsorption
glomerular filtration
Glomerular Filtration
  • Glomerular filtrate - the fluid that enters the capsular space
glomerular filtration1
Glomerular Filtration
  • The principle of filtration – to force fluids and solutes through a membrane by pressure
glomerular filtration2
Glomerular Filtration
  • Glomerular Filtration rate (GFR) – the amount of filtrate formed by both kidney per minute
glomerular filtration3
Glomerular Filtration
  • GFR – 125ml/minute
glomerular filtration4
Glomerular Filtration
  • This amounts of 180 liters of filtrate per day
glomerular filtration5
Glomerular Filtration
  • Because of further processing we only excrete 1-2 liters of urine per day
glomerular filtration6
Glomerular Filtration
  • Only call it urine after it drips out of the collecting ducts into the calyceal system
neural autoregulation
Neural Autoregulation
  • Through the ANS
neural autoregulation1
Neural Autoregulation
  • During extreme emergencies such as shock, sympathetics to afferent arterioles cause them to constrict
neural regulation
Neural Regulation
  • Blood flow into glomerular capillaries is greatly decreased and GFR drops
neural regulation1
Neural Regulation
  • Lowering of renal blood flow has two consequences
neural regulation2
Neural Regulation

1. Reduces urine output, which conserves blood volume

neural regulation3
Neural Regulation

2. It permits greater blood flow to other body tissues

neural regulation4
Neural Regulation
  • Severe hypotension can cause death of part of the tubules, decreases urine output, and kidney failure
hormonal regulation
Hormonal Regulation
  • With mild drops of BP sympathetics stimulate renin secretion on JG cell by targeting B1 receptors
hormonal regulation1
Hormonal Regulation
  • Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
hormonal regulation2
Hormonal Regulation
  • Angiotensin I is converted by angiotensin converting enzyme to angiotensin II
hormonal regulation3
Hormonal Regulation
  • Angiotensin II causes efferent arteriole to constrict more than afferent arterioles, maintaining filtration
hormonal regulation4
Hormonal Regulation
  • Angiotensin II also leads to the formation of aldosterone
hormonal regulation5
Hormonal Regulation
  • Aldosterone causes sodium and water retention and potassium excretion
principles of renal transport
Principles of Renal Transport
  • Reabsorption – returns most of the filtered water and many of the filtered solutes (such as glucose, sodium, etc.) to the bloodstream
principles of renal transport1
Principles of Renal Transport
  • Tubular secretion – the transfer of materials from the blood and tubule cells into tubular fluid
principles of renal transport2
Principles of Renal Transport
  • Tubular secretion helps control blood pH and helps eliminate other substances from the body
principles of renal transport3
Principles of Renal Transport
  • Solute reabsorption drives water reabsorption
reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule
Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule
  • The majority of the solute and water reabsorption from filtered fluid occurs in the proximal convoluted tubules
reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule1
Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule
  • Reabsorption of Na and other solutes creates an osmotic gradient that promotes reabsorption of water by osmosis
reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule2
Reabsorption in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule
  • Proximal convoluted Na transporters promote reabsorption of organic solutes such as
  • Glucose
  • Amino acids
  • Bicarbonate ions
  • Water
  • Na
  • K
  • Cl
  • Other ions and vitamins
secretion of nh3 and nh4 in the proximal convoluted tubule
Secretion of NH3 and NH4 in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule
  • The deamination of the amino acid glutamine by PCT cells generates NH3 and new HCO3-
secretion of nh3 and nh4 in the proximal convoluted tubule1
Secretion of NH3 and NH4 in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule
  • Most NH3 quickly binds to H+ and becomes NH4+
secretion of nh3 and nh4 in the proximal convoluted tubule2
Secretion of NH3 and NH4 in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule
  • NH4+ can substitute H+ aboard the Na+/H+ antiporters and be secreted into tubular fluid
reabsorption in the loop of henle
Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle
  • Water reabsorption is not directly coupled with sodium reabsorption
reabsorption in the loop of henle1
Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle
  • In the descending limb, water is reabsorbed via osmosis
reabsorption in the loop of henle2
Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle
  • As water is reabsorbed from the descending limb, the osmolality of the filtrate increases
reabsorption in the loop of henle3
Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle
  • In the ascending limb, Na+, K+, Cl- symporters reclaim Na+, Cl-, and K+ ions from the tubular lumen fluid.
reabsorption in the loop of henle4
Reabsorption in the Loop of Henle
  • As sodium and chloride are reabsorbed from the ascending limb, the osmolality of the filtrate decreases
reabsorption in the dct
Reabsorption in the DCT
  • As fluid flows along the DCT, reabsorption of Na+ and Cl- continues due to Na+ - Cl- symporters
reabsorption in the dct1
Reabsorption in the DCT
  • The DCT serves as the major site where parathyroid hormone stimulates reabsorption of Ca2+ and excretion of phosphate
reabsorption and secretion in the collecting duct
Reabsorption and Secretion in the Collecting Duct
  • Aldosterone increases Na+ and water reabsorption as well as K+ secretion by the collecting ducts and late distal convoluted tubules
reabsorption and secretion in the collecting duct1
Reabsorption and Secretion in the Collecting Duct
  • Some cells secrete H+ into the filtrate and reabsorb HCO3- into the bloodstream
reabsorption and secretion in the collecting duct2
Reabsorption and Secretion in the Collecting Duct
  • These cells help maintain body fluid pH by excreting excess H+ when the pH is too low or by reabsorbing less HCO3- when the pH is too high.
reabsorption and secretion in the collecting duct3
Reabsorption and Secretion in the Collecting Duct
  • ADH regulates water reabsorption by increasing permeability in the Collecting Duct and DCT
production of dilute and concentrated urine
Production of Dilute and Concentrated Urine
  • The rate at which water is lost from the body depends mainly on ADH
production of dilute and concentrated urine1
Production of Dilute and Concentrated Urine
  • When ADH level is very low, the kidneys produce dilute urine and excrete excess water
production of dilute and concentrated urine2
Production of Dilute and Concentrated Urine
  • When ADH level is high, the kidneys secrete concentrated urine and conserve water
ureters
Ureters
  • Each of the two ureters connects the renal pelvis of one kidney to the urinary bladder
urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder
  • Located in the pelvic cavity posterior to the pubic symphysis
urinary bladder1
Urinary Bladder
  • In the floor of the urinary bladder is a small, smooth triangular area, the trigone.
urinary bladder2
Urinary Bladder
  • The ureters enter the urinary bladder near two posterior points in the triangle
urinary bladder3
Urinary Bladder
  • The urethra drains the urinary bladder from the anterior point of the triangle
urinary bladder4
Urinary Bladder
  • In the area around the opening to the urethra, the circular fibers of the muscularis form the internal urethral sphincter
urinary bladder5
Urinary Bladder
  • The internal urethral sphincter contracts in response to sympathetics, and relaxes in response to parasympathetic stimulation
urinary bladder6
Urinary Bladder
  • Below the internal sphincter is the external urethral sphincter, which is composed of skeletal muscle
urethra
Urethra
  • A tube leading from the floor of the urinary bladder to the exterior
urethra1
Urethra
  • Functions to discharge urine from the body
urethra2
Urethra
  • The male urethra also serves as the duct for ejaculation of semen
incontinence
Incontinence
  • A lack of voluntary control over urination
retention
Retention
  • Failure to void urine completely or normally
ad