Genetics plant breeding
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Genetics & Plant Breeding. J.G. Mexal A/H 100 G Spring 2006. Topics. History Cell Division (mitosis) Reproduction (meiosis) Role of DNA Role of RNA Plant Breeding & Genetics. Gregor Mendel (1822-1864). Worked in monastery garden Time period = 1856-1863

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Genetics plant breeding

Genetics & Plant Breeding

J.G. Mexal

A/H 100 G

Spring 2006


Topics

Topics

  • History

  • Cell Division (mitosis)

  • Reproduction (meiosis)

  • Role of DNA

  • Role of RNA

  • Plant Breeding & Genetics


Gregor mendel 1822 1864

Gregor Mendel (1822-1864)

  • Worked in monastery garden

  • Time period = 1856-1863

  • Published: “Experiments on Plant Hybrids” in obscure journal

  • Worked ‘discovered’ in 1900


Gregor mendel

Gregor Mendel

  • Dominant vs Recessive genes

S = smooth

s = wrinkled


Gregor mendel1

F1

Gregor Mendel

  • Dominant vs Recessive genes (2)

S = smooth

s = wrinkled

Y = yellow

y = green


Gregor mendel2

Gregor Mendel

  • Incomplete dominance


Important milestones

Important Milestones

  • 1866 Gregor Mendel

  • 1947 Barbara McClintock (jumping genes)

  • 1953 Watson & Crick (structure of DNA)

  • 1970s Foreign gene expressed in tobacco

  • 1986 Transgenic plants field tested

  • 1990s Bt gene inserted into crops

  • 1994 Flavr-Savr tomato released


Sex in the garden types of propagation

Sex in the GardenTypes of Propagation

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Sex in the garden types of propagation1

Sex in the GardenTypes of Propagation

  • Sexual

    • Self-pollination-- Wind pollination

    • Cross-pollination-- Insect pollination

  • Asexual

    • Cuttings-- Layering

    • Grafting-- Biotechnology


Sex in the garden sexual propagation

Sex in the GardenSexual Propagation

  • Terms

    • DNA : Deoxyribonucleic Acid a polymeric molecule consisting of nucleotides (ribose, PO4, and adenine, cytosine, guanine, & thymine). Found in nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria. Makes RNA.

    • RNA: Ribonucleic Acida polymeric molecule consisting of nucleotides (ribose, PO4, and adenine, cytosine, guanine, & uracil). Found in nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, ribosomes. Makes proteins.


Building blocks

Building Blocks


Sex in the garden sexual propagation1

Sex in the GardenSexual Propagation

Terms

  • Chromosome: genetic material of cell organized in linear structures

  • Gene: genetic material on a chromosone determining a characteristic

  • Genotype: the genetic makeup of an organism

  • Phenotype: the physical manifestation of the genotype modified by the environment


Sex in the garden sexual propagation2

Sex in the GardenSexual Propagation

Terms

  • Diploid: a cell containing 2 sets (2n)of chromosomes (vegetative cell)

  • Haploid: a cell containing 1 (1n)set of chromosomes (pollen or ovule)

  • Polyploid: a cell containing more than 2 sets of chromosomes. Usually vegetatively reproduced.

    • Banana=3n

    • Potato=4n

    • Strawberry=8n


Sex in the garden sexual propagation3

Sex in the GardenSexual Propagation

Terms

  • Mitosis: cell division where nuclear complement (1n or 2n) is maintained

  • Meiosis: cell division where nuclear complement (2n only) is reduced to 1n (gametes)

  • Hybridization: controlled cross-fertilization

  • Independent Assortment: each chromosome operates independently during mitosis & meiosis

  • Mutation: a heritable change in a gene


Sex in the garden sexual propagation4

Sex in the GardenSexual Propagation

Terms

  • Monoecious: Both sexes on same plant (e.g. corn, pecan)

  • Dioecious: Sexes on different plants

    • Holly (female)Juniper (male or female)

    • Pistachio (female)Cottonwood (male)

    • Asparagus (male)]

    • Ash (male)


Cell division mitosis

Cell Division-Mitosis


Cell division meiosis

Cell Division-Meiosis


Sexual propagation meiosis

Sexual PropagationMeiosis

Ovule

Pollen

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Flower

microspores

megaspores


Sexual propagation fertilization

Sexual PropagationFertilization

Generative cell

Sperm cells

Tube nucleus

Polar nuclei

Pollen grain

Egg

Pollen tube

2-nucleate

4-nucleate

Embryo sac

Endosperm

3n

Zygote 2n

Embryo


Genetic engineering

The Tools

Agrobacterium

“Gene Gun”

Electroporation

Microinjection

Liposomes

The Plan:

Find a gene of interest

Develop cell culture of crop

Insert the gene (tools)

Hope it gets incorporated in plant DNA

Have gene product expressed

Regenerate plants from cells

Field test to see if it works!

Genetic Engineering


Plant people interactions

Plant:People Interactions

  • People to Plant

    • Moving plants

    • Endangering plants– Chestnut, Echinacea

    • Creating ‘new’ plants— Bt corn, RoundUp Ready Cotton

The GoodThe Bad and The Ugly

CornSaltcedar Chestnut blight

ChileTumbleweed Dutch Elm Disease

PeanutKudzu Sudden Oak Death

AppleTree of Heaven White Pine Blister Rust

PotatoPotato Karnal bunt


Biotechnology advances

Biotechnology Advances

  • Flavr-Savr Tomato

  • Ring spot virus-resistant Papaya

  • Golden Rice (vitamin A)

  • Round-up resistant crops (herbicide)

  • BT crops (insecticide)

  • ‘Designer’ plants


Genetic engineering1

Genetic Engineering

  • The Future:

    • Antibiotics in fruits

    • Salt tolerance??

    • Drought tolerance??

    • Freeze tolerance (INA)

    • Mexal’s botanical kindergarten??

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Plant people interactions1

Plant:People Interactions

  • Creating ‘new’ plants— for the future

    • Sensitive Noses: Beano-Beans

    • Movie Goers:Glo-in-the-dark Popcorn

    • Indecisive New Mexicans: ‘NuMex Red’nGreen’ Chile

    • Americans: Atkins-friendly Maple Syrup

    • Christmas: Epiphany Poinsettia

    • Kinder-garden: Nile water lily X Venus fly-trap


Plant people interactions2

Plant:People Interactions

  • People to Plant

    • Creating ‘new’ plants— for the future

      • Sensitive Noses: Beano-Beans

      • Movie Goers:Glo-in-the-dark Popcorn

      • Indecisive New Mexicans: Red’nGreen Chile

      • Americans: Atkins-friendly Maple Syrup

      • Christmas: Epiphany Poinsettia

      • Kinder-garden: Nile water lily X Venus fly-trap


Sex in the garden asexual propagation

Sex in the GardenAsexual Propagation

  • Terms

    • Cutting

    • PGR (hormone)

    • Sport

    • Scion

    • Rootstock

    • Graft Union

    • Tissue Culture


Sex in the garden asexual propagation1

Sex in the GardenAsexual Propagation

  • Vegetative Propagation

    • Timing (season)-- Age (branch)

    • PGR-- Leaf Area

    • Stem Wounding-- Cutting Size

    • RH-- T


Rooting of blue spruce wagner1987

Rooting %

Collection Month

Cutting Length (cm)

IBA Treatment (ppm)

Rooting of Blue Spruce/ Wagner1987

Rooting %


Genetics plant breeding1

Things to Know

DNA

Gene

Chromosome

Ploidy

Haploid (N)

Diploid (2N)

Polyploid (3N, 4N, 6N)

Things to Know

RNA

Mitosis

Meiosis

Genetics & Plant Breeding


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