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Genetics & Plant Breeding. J.G. Mexal A/H 100 G Spring 2006. Topics. History Cell Division (mitosis) Reproduction (meiosis) Role of DNA Role of RNA Plant Breeding & Genetics. Gregor Mendel (1822-1864). Worked in monastery garden Time period = 1856-1863

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Genetics plant breeding

Genetics & Plant Breeding

J.G. Mexal

A/H 100 G

Spring 2006


Topics
Topics

  • History

  • Cell Division (mitosis)

  • Reproduction (meiosis)

  • Role of DNA

  • Role of RNA

  • Plant Breeding & Genetics


Gregor mendel 1822 1864
Gregor Mendel (1822-1864)

  • Worked in monastery garden

  • Time period = 1856-1863

  • Published: “Experiments on Plant Hybrids” in obscure journal

  • Worked ‘discovered’ in 1900


Gregor mendel
Gregor Mendel

  • Dominant vs Recessive genes

S = smooth

s = wrinkled


Gregor mendel1

F1

Gregor Mendel

  • Dominant vs Recessive genes (2)

S = smooth

s = wrinkled

Y = yellow

y = green


Gregor mendel2
Gregor Mendel

  • Incomplete dominance


Important milestones
Important Milestones

  • 1866 Gregor Mendel

  • 1947 Barbara McClintock (jumping genes)

  • 1953 Watson & Crick (structure of DNA)

  • 1970s Foreign gene expressed in tobacco

  • 1986 Transgenic plants field tested

  • 1990s Bt gene inserted into crops

  • 1994 Flavr-Savr tomato released


Sex in the garden types of propagation
Sex in the GardenTypes of Propagation

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Sex in the garden types of propagation1
Sex in the GardenTypes of Propagation

  • Sexual

    • Self-pollination -- Wind pollination

    • Cross-pollination -- Insect pollination

  • Asexual

    • Cuttings -- Layering

    • Grafting -- Biotechnology


Sex in the garden sexual propagation
Sex in the GardenSexual Propagation

  • Terms

    • DNA : Deoxyribonucleic Acid a polymeric molecule consisting of nucleotides (ribose, PO4, and adenine, cytosine, guanine, & thymine). Found in nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria. Makes RNA.

    • RNA: Ribonucleic Acida polymeric molecule consisting of nucleotides (ribose, PO4, and adenine, cytosine, guanine, & uracil). Found in nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, ribosomes. Makes proteins.



Sex in the garden sexual propagation1
Sex in the GardenSexual Propagation

Terms

  • Chromosome: genetic material of cell organized in linear structures

  • Gene: genetic material on a chromosone determining a characteristic

  • Genotype: the genetic makeup of an organism

  • Phenotype: the physical manifestation of the genotype modified by the environment


Sex in the garden sexual propagation2
Sex in the GardenSexual Propagation

Terms

  • Diploid: a cell containing 2 sets (2n)of chromosomes (vegetative cell)

  • Haploid: a cell containing 1 (1n)set of chromosomes (pollen or ovule)

  • Polyploid: a cell containing more than 2 sets of chromosomes. Usually vegetatively reproduced.

    • Banana = 3n

    • Potato = 4n

    • Strawberry = 8n


Sex in the garden sexual propagation3
Sex in the GardenSexual Propagation

Terms

  • Mitosis: cell division where nuclear complement (1n or 2n) is maintained

  • Meiosis: cell division where nuclear complement (2n only) is reduced to 1n (gametes)

  • Hybridization: controlled cross-fertilization

  • Independent Assortment: each chromosome operates independently during mitosis & meiosis

  • Mutation: a heritable change in a gene


Sex in the garden sexual propagation4
Sex in the GardenSexual Propagation

Terms

  • Monoecious: Both sexes on same plant (e.g. corn, pecan)

  • Dioecious: Sexes on different plants

    • Holly (female) Juniper (male or female)

    • Pistachio (female) Cottonwood (male)

    • Asparagus (male)]

    • Ash (male)




Sexual propagation meiosis
Sexual PropagationMeiosis

Ovule

Pollen

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Flower

microspores

megaspores


Sexual propagation fertilization
Sexual PropagationFertilization

Generative cell

Sperm cells

Tube nucleus

Polar nuclei

Pollen grain

Egg

Pollen tube

2-nucleate

4-nucleate

Embryo sac

Endosperm

3n

Zygote 2n

Embryo


Genetic engineering

The Tools

Agrobacterium

“Gene Gun”

Electroporation

Microinjection

Liposomes

The Plan:

Find a gene of interest

Develop cell culture of crop

Insert the gene (tools)

Hope it gets incorporated in plant DNA

Have gene product expressed

Regenerate plants from cells

Field test to see if it works!

Genetic Engineering


Plant people interactions
Plant:People Interactions

  • People to Plant

    • Moving plants

    • Endangering plants– Chestnut, Echinacea

    • Creating ‘new’ plants— Bt corn, RoundUp Ready Cotton

The Good The Bad and The Ugly

Corn Saltcedar Chestnut blight

Chile Tumbleweed Dutch Elm Disease

Peanut Kudzu Sudden Oak Death

Apple Tree of Heaven White Pine Blister Rust

Potato Potato Karnal bunt


Biotechnology advances
Biotechnology Advances

  • Flavr-Savr Tomato

  • Ring spot virus-resistant Papaya

  • Golden Rice (vitamin A)

  • Round-up resistant crops (herbicide)

  • BT crops (insecticide)

  • ‘Designer’ plants


Genetic engineering1
Genetic Engineering

  • The Future:

    • Antibiotics in fruits

    • Salt tolerance??

    • Drought tolerance??

    • Freeze tolerance (INA)

    • Mexal’s botanical kindergarten??

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Plant people interactions1
Plant:People Interactions

  • Creating ‘new’ plants— for the future

    • Sensitive Noses: Beano-Beans

    • Movie Goers:Glo-in-the-dark Popcorn

    • Indecisive New Mexicans: ‘NuMex Red’nGreen’ Chile

    • Americans: Atkins-friendly Maple Syrup

    • Christmas: Epiphany Poinsettia

    • Kinder-garden: Nile water lily X Venus fly-trap


Plant people interactions2
Plant:People Interactions

  • People to Plant

    • Creating ‘new’ plants— for the future

      • Sensitive Noses: Beano-Beans

      • Movie Goers:Glo-in-the-dark Popcorn

      • Indecisive New Mexicans: Red’nGreen Chile

      • Americans: Atkins-friendly Maple Syrup

      • Christmas: Epiphany Poinsettia

      • Kinder-garden: Nile water lily X Venus fly-trap


Sex in the garden asexual propagation
Sex in the GardenAsexual Propagation

  • Terms

    • Cutting

    • PGR (hormone)

    • Sport

    • Scion

    • Rootstock

    • Graft Union

    • Tissue Culture


Sex in the garden asexual propagation1
Sex in the GardenAsexual Propagation

  • Vegetative Propagation

    • Timing (season) -- Age (branch)

    • PGR -- Leaf Area

    • Stem Wounding -- Cutting Size

    • RH -- T


Rooting of blue spruce wagner1987

Rooting %

Collection Month

Cutting Length (cm)

IBA Treatment (ppm)

Rooting of Blue Spruce/ Wagner1987

Rooting %


Genetics plant breeding1

Things to Know

DNA

Gene

Chromosome

Ploidy

Haploid (N)

Diploid (2N)

Polyploid (3N, 4N, 6N)

Things to Know

RNA

Mitosis

Meiosis

Genetics & Plant Breeding


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