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Rapid Hardening Systems. By R.C.Greener. Which Would You Rather Buy?. A or B. Benefits of Quick Hardening. Better Freshness and Quality Smoother Ice Cream Texture Less Carton Damage in Storage and Distribution Process

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Rapid hardening systems

Rapid Hardening Systems

By R.C.Greener



Benefits of quick hardening
Benefits of Quick Hardening

  • Better Freshness and Quality

  • Smoother Ice Cream Texture

  • Less Carton Damage in Storage and Distribution Process

  • Less Chance of Product Skinning

  • Better Ice Cream Consistency Regardless of Package Size or Shape

  • Lower Labor and Handling Costs

  • Inventory reduction - Ship directly from Hardener


Costs to harden rapidly
Costs to Harden Rapidly

  • More energy

  • Higher Capital Investment

  • Increased product shrinkage if design improper


Percentage of h 2 o frozen at various draw fill temperatures
Percentage of H2O Frozen at Various Draw/Fill Temperatures

Draw Temp % H2O Frozen

+25oF 33.0

+24oF 41.0

+23oF 47.0

+22oF 52.0

+21oF 56.0

+20oF 59.0

-15oF 90.0


Two Types of Hardening

Open Loop

Closed Loop

Ice Cream Manufacturer Purchases Refrigeration

Ice Cream Manufacturer

Refrigerates with

Self Contained System


Open Loop

Closed Loop


Advantages of cryogenic hardening
Advantagesof Cryogenic Hardening

  • Lowest retention time for ice cream novelties & cakes

  • Excellent ice cream texture

  • Allows surface setting of novelty item prior to wrapping

  • Superior overall quality for cake items


Disadvantages of cryogenic hardening
Disadvantagesof Cryogenic Hardening

  • Very expensive on a cost/lb basis

  • Cost is proportional to location cryogenic medium processing

  • Unit must meet sanitation demands

  • Process requires expensive production room area


How immersion plate systems harden
How Immersion & Plate Systems Harden

Ice Cream

Mechanical

Refrigeration

System

Evaporative

Condenser

Heat Transferred by Direct Conduction from Product to Refrigerant

Energy Transferred from Refrigerant to Atmosphere


Advantages of immersion hardening
Advantages of Immersion Hardening

  • Best method to harden stick novelties

  • Rapid hardening with resultant minimum retention times

  • Automation allows high production rates

  • High product quality

  • Efficient heat removal process


Disadvantages of immersion hardening
Disadvantages of Immersion Hardening

  • Single item process

  • Requires expensive production room area

  • Must meet sanitation requirements

  • Some units subject to high waste water demands

  • Product shrinkage through process is relatively high

  • High capital expense for single item manufacture


Advantages of plate hardener
Advantagesof Plate Hardener

  • Makes near perfect squares and rectangles on 95% of production

  • Rapid hardening with resultant minimum retention times

  • Heat removal via conduction is very efficient

  • Requires minimal space in low cost ambient warehouse environment

  • Low production shrinkage through hardening process


Disadvantages of plate hardener
Disadvantagesof Plate Hardener

  • Very limited item utility

  • Approximately 5% of product has shape irregularities

  • High capital cost in plants where all volume can not be hardened by plate process

  • Safety issue because refrigerant is in moving hollow plate

  • Requires low refrigerant temperature


How air convection hardens
How Air Convection Hardens

Cold

Air

Ice Cream

Mechanical

Refrigeration

System

Evaporative

Condenser

Coil

Warm

Air

Conduction from Refrigerant to Atmosphere

Conduction from Product to Air

Conduction From

Product to Refrigerant


Air convection significance
Air Convection Significance

  • Used for Hardening over 85% of Ice Cream in US.

  • Used by over 95% of Ice Cream Manufacturers in US


Important facts about convection hardening
Important Facts about Convection Hardening

  • Product Draw or Fill Temperature

  • Package Orientation during Hardening Process.

  • Laminar Air Flow Vs. Turbulent air flow

  • Air Vs. Heat Removal Index Temperature

  • Product Spacing


Importance of draw fill temperatures
Importance of Draw/Fill Temperatures

Draw Temp % H2O Frozen

+25oF 33.0

+24oF 41.0

+23oF 47.0

+22oF 52.0

+21oF 56.0

+20oF 59.0

-15oF 90.0


Air flow perpendicular to pak length
Air Flow Perpendicular to Pak Length

  • Package: 4 – 56 oz.

  • Flavor: Choc. Peanut butter cup.

  • Air Temp.: -25o F

  • Air Velocity: 1000 FPM

  • Core Temp In: +20.3o F

  • Core Temp Out: -0.4o F

  • Retention Time =

    5 Hr 48 Min


Air flow parallel to pak length
Air Flow Parallel to Pak Length

  • Package: 4 – 56 oz.

  • Flavor: Choc. Peanut butter cup.

  • Air Temp.: -25o F

  • Air Velocity: 1000 FPM

  • Core Temp In: +19.8o F

  • Core Temp Out: -1.3o F

  • Retention Time =

    4 Hr 18 Min


Draw temp vs hardening times

Package: 4 – 56 oz. SqRd

Flavor: Pumpkin Crème

Air Temp.: -23o F

Air Velocity: 1000 FPM

Core Temp In: +23.2o F

Core Temp Out: -0.1o F

Retention Time =

5 Hr 28 Min

Package: 4 – 56 oz. SqRd

Flavor: Pumpkin Crème

Air Temp.: -23o F

Air Velocity: 1000 FPM

Core Temp In: +19.3o F

Core Temp Out: -0.2o F

Retention Time =

4 Hr 4 Min

Draw Temp vs. Hardening Times


Laminar vs turbulent air flow
Laminar vs Turbulent Air Flow

Definitions:

Laminar Flow=Streamline flow in a viscous fluid near a solid boundary.

Turbulent Flow=Fluid flow in which the velocity at a given point varies erratically in magnitude and direction.


The requirement for an efficient air distribution system is
The requirement for an efficient air distribution system is

Conversion from Turbulent Flow

to

Laminar Flow


What causes turbulent flow
What Causes Turbulent Flow?

  • Fans and other mechanical methods of moving air.

  • Obstructions to normal air flow.

  • Merging air patterns.

Advantages:

  • Can provide excellent heat removal when hardening.

Disadvantages:

  • Consumes greater amount energy (Fan BHP).

  • Increases static pressure resulting in reduced air flow (CFM) with existing equipment.


Package spacing
Package Spacing

Package Rows should have a minimum of 2.00 inch space between rows for air flow.


Advantages of pallet hardener
Advantagesof Pallet Hardener

  • More mechanical simplicity than all other air convection hardeners

  • Low capital investment

  • Hardens multiple package sizes

  • Low maintenance costs


Disadvantages of pallet hardener
Disadvantagesof Pallet Hardener

  • Mediocre to poor hardening results

  • Requires conscientious operator to insure product quality

  • High labor costs

  • High product shrinkage

  • Can result in unattractive packaging


Advantages of spiral belt hardener
Advantagesof Spiral Belt Hardener

  • Highest degree of mechanical simplicity of automated air convection hardeners

  • Good hardening when operated within design parameters

  • Low to moderate capital investment

  • Hardens multiple package sizes simultaneously

  • Low production shrinkage through hardening process

  • Available in system sizes from 250 GPH


Disadvantages of spiral belt hardener
Disadvantagesof Spiral Belt Hardener

  • Belt loading limited to 10 lbs/ft of belt for good belt life

  • High fan horsepower results in high energy demands and cost

  • Requires low refrigerant temperatures

  • Very difficult to automate package handling in high output plants

  • High maintenance costs (belt cost represents 35% of typical system cost)


Advantages of tray between continuous chain
Advantagesof Tray between Continuous Chain

  • Highest degree of mechanical simplicity of automated tray type air convection hardeners

  • Double pass air system insures very good hardening

  • Moderate capital investment

  • Hardens multiple package sizes simultaneously

  • Low production shrinkage through hardening process

  • Very good package orientation adapts to automation

  • Efficient air system reduces energy requirement and cost

  • Available in systems as small as 250 GPH


Disadvantages of tray between continuous chain
Disadvantagesof Tray between Continuous Chain

  • Feed rates less than 2500 GPH

  • Not very suitable for simultaneous multiple line productions

  • Higher maintenance costs than tray/transport type systems


Advantages of variable retention time vrt hardener
Advantagesof Variable Retention Time (VRT) Hardener

  • Allows variable retention time for different size items

  • Easily adapts to line automation

  • Maintains package orientation through the hardening process

  • Hardens multiple package sizes simultaneously

  • Handles high production rates (up to 10,000 GPH)


Disadvantages of variable retention time vrt hardener
Disadvantagesof Variable Retention Time (VRT) Hardener

  • Highest cost hardener

  • Complex program and operation

  • Higher product shrinkage through system

  • High static pressures require higher HP and energy requirements & longer retention times

  • Inherent design results in higher maintenance costs

  • Minimum size system is approx 1500 GPH




Advantages of multiple tray transport
Advantagesof Multiple Tray Transport

  • Double pass air system insures very good hardening

  • Hardens multiple package sizes simultaneously

  • Very low production shrinkage through hardening process w/ good design

  • Moderate mechanical simplicity of automated tray type air convection hardeners

  • Moderate capital investment

  • Very low maintenance cost with long service life (40 + years)

  • Very good package orientation adapts to automation

  • Efficient air system reduces energy requirement and cost

  • Available in sizes to 10,000 GPH


Disadvantages of multiple tray transport
Disadvantagesof Multiple Tray Transport

  • No multiple retention time in standard form

  • Minimum size system is 750 GPH

  • More complex than spiral belt system

  • Higher product shrinkage w/ poor design


Advantages of fusion cell
Advantagesof Fusion Cell

  • Combination conduction/convection system hardens faster than any air convection system

  • Most efficient air hardening system -- rivals that of plate hardener

  • Hardens multiple package sizes simultaneously

  • Very low production shrinkage through hardening process

  • Moderate mechanical simplicity of automated tray type air convection hardeners

  • Overall capital investment lower than most air systems

  • Very low maintenance cost with long service life (30 + years)

  • Very good package orientation adapts to automation

  • Available in sizes to 10,000 GPH

  • Most compact of air convection hardeners

  • Allows same refrigerant suction temp for both freezer and hardener


Disadvantages of fusion cell
Disadvantagesof Fusion Cell

  • No multiple retention time in standard form

  • Minimum size system is 750 GPH

  • More complex than spiral belt system

  • Higher floor loadings than other air convection types


Manual hardener design
Manual Hardener Design

Fan Coil

Air Plenum

Carts or Wire Baskets

w/ Rows of Ice Cream Paks

= Laminar Flow


Energy consumption in average ice cream plant
Energy Consumption in Average Ice Cream Plant

  • Mix Processing = 5 %

  • Freezing = 35%

  • Hardening = 45%

  • Storage = 15%

    Total = 100%


Real energy costs
Real Energy Costs

  • 1.0 HP motor w/ 16 Hr on/8 Hr off Cycle

  • 8 Hr off = .746 x .08 x 8 Hr x 250 da

    = $ 119.36

  • 115 off day = .746 x .08 x 24 Hr x 115 da

    = $ 164.72

  • Total Annual Energy Waste = $ 284.08

  • Total Waste for 25 Motors =$ 7,102.00

  • Does not include: refrigeration losses


Individual carton vs

Individual Cartonvs

Over Wrapped Package


Tri tray hardening test w individual sqround
TRI-Tray Hardening Test w/ Individual Sqround

Retention Time: 2 Hr. 13 Min.



Design objectives of fast hardener
Design Objectives of Fast Hardener

  • Rapid hardening to achieve uniform ice crystallization and improve quality.

  • Improve package quality.

  • Ability to adapt to future packaging/marketing changes.

  • Lowest possible product shrinkage thru hardening process.

  • Low energy demand.

  • Low power (kwh) requirement.

  • Low direct labor.

  • Low maintenance cost.

  • Adaptability to Automation.

  • Capital cost commensurate with operational savings.


Any question

Any Question?

Thank You!

If you have any future question, please contact: [email protected]


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