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The Age of Exploration. 1588 – British defeat Spanish Armada. 1415 – Portugal captures Ceuta. 1620 – Plymouth Colony founded. 1542 – New Laws of the Indies enacted. 1494– Treaty of Torsedilla s. 1521– Cortés conquers the Aztecs. 1602 – Dutch East India Company forms.

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the age of exploration

The Age of Exploration

1588 – British defeat Spanish Armada

1415 – Portugal captures Ceuta

1620 – Plymouth Colony founded

1542 – New Laws of the Indies enacted

1494– Treaty of Torsedillas

1521– Cortés conquers the Aztecs

1602 – Dutch East India Company forms

1492 – Columbus discovers the Americas

1498 – Vasco da Gama reaches Calicut

1522 – Magellan killed in the Philippines

1565 – First permanent settlement at St. Augustine

1641 – Dutch seize Malacca

background
Background
  • World connected through long distance trade for centuries
    • Silk Road
    • Indian Ocean Trade Routes
    • Difficult, lengthy, dangerous journey to travel for spices and luxury goods
  • New travel technology appeared in the Middle Ages & Renaissance
    • Caravel – sturdier ship with triangular sales
    • Astrolabe – used to determine latitude with the stars
      • Perfected by Muslims
      • European-Muslim trade since Crusades
    • Magnetic compass – perfected by the Chinese
motivation for exploration
Motivation for Exploration
  • Renaissance curiosity in the 1400s
  • Desire for luxury gods
    • Spices
    • Tea
    • Porcelain
    • Silk
  • Access to trade
    • Trade controlled by Italians & Muslims
    • Wanted direct routes to have cheaper access to goods
  • Missionary work
    • Spread of Christianity
    • Jesuits in particular
  • Competition
  • Glory

God, Glory, Gold

portugal first
Portugal First
  • Portuguese first to establish trading outposts on the west coast of Africa & into the Indian Ocean basin
  • Henry the Navigator – Portuguese prince with enthusiasm for exploration
    • Founded navigation schools for mapmakers, instrument makers, shipbuilders, and captains
  • 1415 – Captured Ceuta
  • Series of trading outposts on African coast by 1460 (Henry’s death)
    • Traded with Africans for gold & ivory
    • Eventually traded for slaves
reaching asia
Reaching Asia
  • Believed they must sail around Africa to reach spices in Asia
  • 1488 – Bartolomeu Dias – ventured to the Cape of Good Hope
    • Turned around
    • Shortage of supplies
  • 1497 – Vasco da Gama – began exploring African coast
    • 1498 – reached Calicut (India)
    • 1499 – returned to Portugal with silks, spices, and gems
      • Cargo worth 60X the cost of voyage!
      • Gave Portugal a direct sea route to India
the portuguese method
The Portuguese Method
  • Established ports & forts along the coast
  • Called a “trading empire”
  • Differences from the traditional notion of an empire
    • No vast land holding
    • Few settlers
    • Main purpose: hold cargo for trade & trade with locals
  • Their Trading Empire
    • Took control of spice trade from Muslim merchants
      • Brought goods back at 1/5 old prices
      • More people could afford luxury goods
    • Posts in Mughal Empire
      • Promised aid to princes against other European powers
    • 1510 – captured Goa
    • 1511 – captured Malacca
competition spain
Competition - Spain
  • Competed with Portugal for direct route to Asia
  • 1492 – Ferdinand and Isabella hired Christopher Columbus to find a route to Asia by sailing west
    • Big reason – F&I purged the Jews and lost many intellectuals & influential people, so they needed help!
    • Genoese captain
      • Knew world was round since Greek times
      • Underestimated size of world
      • Didn’t know other continents were there
    • Set out August 3, 1492
    • Reached Caribbean October 12, 1492
    • Thought he’d reached the Indies  called people Indians
rivaling claims to land
Rivaling Claims to Land
  • After Columbus’s voyage, more explorers sailed west
  • Portugal & Spain held claims in the New World
  • 1493 – F&I wanted Pope Alexander VI to support their claims
    • Set up Line of Demarcation, dividing non-European world into 2 zones
      • Spain in the West
      • Portugal in the East (claimed Brazil in 1500)
  • 1494 – Line agreed to at the Treaty of Torsedillas
    • Basically told other countries they needed to move fast to keep up
    • Did not take into consideration native peoples’ claims to lands
other nations join i n
Other Nations Join In
  • ~1600 the British & Dutch entered
  • Dutch Republic – The Netherlands – was small country along the North Sea in Europe
    • Ruled by Spain since early 1500s
    • Declared independent in 1581
    • Leading sea power in short time
    • Largest fleet by 1600 with 20,000 vessels
    • Seized Malacca from Portugal
      • Valuable spice islands
    • Controlled Cape of Good Hope
    • Dutch East India Company – company founded in 1602 by wealthy merchants, which had sovereign powers, that grew to have a monopoly on the spice islands
      • Could wage war, govern territory, and build an army
      • Used military force – BUT preferred to forge close ties with local rulers
      • Declined as power of Britain & France grew
  • British also had an East India Company
  • Eroded Portuguese control in the Indian Ocean
british french traders
British & French Traders
  • Britain & France had foothold in the Mediterranean by 1700
  • English East India Company focused on establishing outposts in India
    • Developed successful business trading cloth in Europe
    • Gained way into the Mughal Empire
  • France’s East India Company founded 1664
    • Struggled at first
    • Attacked by the Dutch
    • Eventually est. outpost in India in 1720s
    • Not very profitable
review exploration
Review – Exploration
  • What were the 6 motivations for exploration in the 15th century?
  • What country was the first to embark on exploration?
  • What settled the Portugal-Spain dispute in 1494?
  • What were the main objectives in exploration?
  • What groups traded with Europeans, and were eventually subject to their rule?
spain builds an empire
Spain Builds an Empire
  • Motivation – fierce competition for wealth in Europe  wanted GOLD
  • 1492: Columbus reached the West Indies on behalf of the Spanish crown
    • F&I financed 3 more trips
    • Intended to turn Caribbean lands into colonies – lands controlled by another nation
  • Conquistadors – conquerors – would soon arrive in Central & South America
    • Claimed lands for Spain
    • Sought silver & gold
cort s conquers mexico
Cortés Conquers Mexico
  • Landed in Mexico in 1519
  • Encountered native Aztecs
    • Reached capital Tenochtitlan
    • Montezuma II – Is Cortés a god?
      • Agreed to give gold
    • Killed many Aztecs in 1521
  • Conquered Tenochtitlan (and the Aztecs in general) in 1521
    • Spanish weapons superior
    • Other native groups helped Cortés
    • Disease – measles, mumps, smallpox, & typhus – killed off many natives
pizarro in peru
Pizarro in Peru
  • 1532- Francisco Pizarro reached Peru & conquered Incan Empire
  • Met ruler Atahualpa near city Cajamarca
    • Spanish: 200 man army; Incan: 30,000 man army
    • Spanish ambushed & kidnapped Atahualpa
    • Received ransom of gold and silver
    • But, killed Atahualpa anyway
    • Incans retreated
  • Captured capital Cuzco without a struggle in 1533
  • Other Regions
    • Maya in the Yucatan & Guatemala
spanish empire by mid 16 th century
Spanish Empire by mid-16th Century
  • 4 Viceroyalties
    • New Spain
    • New Granada
    • Peru
    • Rio de la Plata
spanish patterns of conquest
Spanish Patterns of Conquest
  • Used techniques of the reconquista (conquering Muslims)
    • Live among them
    • Impose culture on them
  • Relations between Spanish and natives common  creation of Mestizo population
  • Oppressed natives
    • Encomienda system – forced labor of natives on farms, ranches, or in mines
      • Effectively put natives at bottom of social hierarchy
      • Spoken against by Bartolome de lasCasas  new laws forbade enslavement in 1542
        • Too far from Spain to be enforced
    • Imposed culture
    • Close control on trade, esp. silver & gold
      • Sugar cane profitable  need workers
        • Slaves from Africa by 1530s
        • # Descendents from Africans outnumbered Europeans within a few generations
      • Laws prohibited trade with other nations
  • Spread authority of Catholic Church
spanish colonial society
Spanish Colonial Society
  • Blended Spanish, African, and Amerindian cultures
  • Native styles of buildings, foods, and use of canoes
  • Christianity and horses present
  • African cooking, farming, dance, and song
  • Social Hierarchy
    • Spanish-born Europeans
    • Creoles (Spanish born in the colonies)
    • Mestizos (Spanish + Native)
    • Mulattos (Native + African)
    • Natives (Amerindian)
    • Africans (Descendents of slaves)
  • Valued education – role fulfilled by the Church
pushing north
Pushing North
  • 1540 – empire stretched from Mexico to Peru
  • 1540-41 – Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led expedition through Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas
    • Little gold
    • Mostly priests settled to explore & colonize
      • MANY Christian missionaries sought converts
effects of conquistadors
Effects of Conquistadors
  • Conquered millions of natives with guns and disease
  • Seized valuable goods, esp. gold and silver
    • Sent abroad to the Philippines for trade
    • Made Spain wealthy & powerful…
    • But quickly led to rapid inflation & declined the empire
  • Natives – split
    • Stop resisting & convert to Christianity
    • Still fight & protect culture
  • Changed patterns of global encounters
    • Map connected by sea routes for trade (not just land routes)
remember
Remember:
  • Conquered the Aztecs, Incas, and other natives easily with guns and disease
  • Empire spread from California to Chile in the Americas
  • Social hierarchy ranged from Africans (slaves) at the bottom to Spanish-born whites at the top
    • Placement of mixed people on the scale indicates the commonality of interbreeding that was still seen as less-acceptable
  • Economy focused on treasures (gold, silver) and later plantations (sugar, tobacco)
the columbian exchange
The Columbian Exchange
  • Interaction between Europe, Africa, and the Americas beginning in the late 15th century (and Asia)
  • Important – it’s not a trade route
  • Describes exchange of plants, animals, people, and diseases among different areas of the world
shocking facts about the columbian exchange
Shocking Facts about the Columbian Exchange
  • Plants native to the Americas
    • Tomatoes (not Italy)
    • Potatoes (not Ireland)
    • Corn
  • Things introduced to the Americas
    • Onions
    • Olives
    • Coffee
    • Peaches
    • Wheat, Barley, & Rice
    • Cattle, sheep, pigs, horses
  • Lots of people died
    • Europeans brought diseases (smallpox, influenza, typhus, measles, malaria, diphtheria, & whooping cough)
    • Amerindians had no immunities against the diseases
  • Lots of people lived
    • New, easily grown crops introduced to Europe and Asia
    • Population BOOMED!
columbian exchange crash course
Columbian Exchange Crash Course

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQPA5oNpfM4

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