The age of exploration
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The Age of Exploration. 1588 – British defeat Spanish Armada. 1415 – Portugal captures Ceuta. 1620 – Plymouth Colony founded. 1542 – New Laws of the Indies enacted. 1494– Treaty of Torsedilla s. 1521– Cortés conquers the Aztecs. 1602 – Dutch East India Company forms.

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The Age of Exploration

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The age of exploration

The Age of Exploration

1588 – British defeat Spanish Armada

1415 – Portugal captures Ceuta

1620 – Plymouth Colony founded

1542 – New Laws of the Indies enacted

1494– Treaty of Torsedillas

1521– Cortés conquers the Aztecs

1602 – Dutch East India Company forms

1492 – Columbus discovers the Americas

1498 – Vasco da Gama reaches Calicut

1522 – Magellan killed in the Philippines

1565 – First permanent settlement at St. Augustine

1641 – Dutch seize Malacca


Background

Background

  • World connected through long distance trade for centuries

    • Silk Road

    • Indian Ocean Trade Routes

    • Difficult, lengthy, dangerous journey to travel for spices and luxury goods

  • New travel technology appeared in the Middle Ages & Renaissance

    • Caravel – sturdier ship with triangular sales

    • Astrolabe – used to determine latitude with the stars

      • Perfected by Muslims

      • European-Muslim trade since Crusades

    • Magnetic compass – perfected by the Chinese


Motivation for exploration

Motivation for Exploration

  • Renaissance curiosity in the 1400s

  • Desire for luxury gods

    • Spices

    • Tea

    • Porcelain

    • Silk

  • Access to trade

    • Trade controlled by Italians & Muslims

    • Wanted direct routes to have cheaper access to goods

  • Missionary work

    • Spread of Christianity

    • Jesuits in particular

  • Competition

  • Glory

God, Glory, Gold


Portugal first

Portugal First

  • Portuguese first to establish trading outposts on the west coast of Africa & into the Indian Ocean basin

  • Henry the Navigator – Portuguese prince with enthusiasm for exploration

    • Founded navigation schools for mapmakers, instrument makers, shipbuilders, and captains

  • 1415 – Captured Ceuta

  • Series of trading outposts on African coast by 1460 (Henry’s death)

    • Traded with Africans for gold & ivory

    • Eventually traded for slaves


Reaching asia

Reaching Asia

  • Believed they must sail around Africa to reach spices in Asia

  • 1488 – Bartolomeu Dias – ventured to the Cape of Good Hope

    • Turned around

    • Shortage of supplies

  • 1497 – Vasco da Gama – began exploring African coast

    • 1498 – reached Calicut (India)

    • 1499 – returned to Portugal with silks, spices, and gems

      • Cargo worth 60X the cost of voyage!

      • Gave Portugal a direct sea route to India


The portuguese method

The Portuguese Method

  • Established ports & forts along the coast

  • Called a “trading empire”

  • Differences from the traditional notion of an empire

    • No vast land holding

    • Few settlers

    • Main purpose: hold cargo for trade & trade with locals

  • Their Trading Empire

    • Took control of spice trade from Muslim merchants

      • Brought goods back at 1/5 old prices

      • More people could afford luxury goods

    • Posts in Mughal Empire

      • Promised aid to princes against other European powers

    • 1510 – captured Goa

    • 1511 – captured Malacca


Competition spain

Competition - Spain

  • Competed with Portugal for direct route to Asia

  • 1492 – Ferdinand and Isabella hired Christopher Columbus to find a route to Asia by sailing west

    • Big reason – F&I purged the Jews and lost many intellectuals & influential people, so they needed help!

    • Genoese captain

      • Knew world was round since Greek times

      • Underestimated size of world

      • Didn’t know other continents were there

    • Set out August 3, 1492

    • Reached Caribbean October 12, 1492

    • Thought he’d reached the Indies  called people Indians


Rivaling claims to land

Rivaling Claims to Land

  • After Columbus’s voyage, more explorers sailed west

  • Portugal & Spain held claims in the New World

  • 1493 – F&I wanted Pope Alexander VI to support their claims

    • Set up Line of Demarcation, dividing non-European world into 2 zones

      • Spain in the West

      • Portugal in the East (claimed Brazil in 1500)

  • 1494 – Line agreed to at the Treaty of Torsedillas

    • Basically told other countries they needed to move fast to keep up

    • Did not take into consideration native peoples’ claims to lands


Other nations join i n

Other Nations Join In

  • ~1600 the British & Dutch entered

  • Dutch Republic – The Netherlands – was small country along the North Sea in Europe

    • Ruled by Spain since early 1500s

    • Declared independent in 1581

    • Leading sea power in short time

    • Largest fleet by 1600 with 20,000 vessels

    • Seized Malacca from Portugal

      • Valuable spice islands

    • Controlled Cape of Good Hope

    • Dutch East India Company – company founded in 1602 by wealthy merchants, which had sovereign powers, that grew to have a monopoly on the spice islands

      • Could wage war, govern territory, and build an army

      • Used military force – BUT preferred to forge close ties with local rulers

      • Declined as power of Britain & France grew

  • British also had an East India Company

  • Eroded Portuguese control in the Indian Ocean


British french traders

British & French Traders

  • Britain & France had foothold in the Mediterranean by 1700

  • English East India Company focused on establishing outposts in India

    • Developed successful business trading cloth in Europe

    • Gained way into the Mughal Empire

  • France’s East India Company founded 1664

    • Struggled at first

    • Attacked by the Dutch

    • Eventually est. outpost in India in 1720s

    • Not very profitable


Review exploration

Review – Exploration

  • What were the 6 motivations for exploration in the 15th century?

  • What country was the first to embark on exploration?

  • What settled the Portugal-Spain dispute in 1494?

  • What were the main objectives in exploration?

  • What groups traded with Europeans, and were eventually subject to their rule?


Spain builds an empire

Spain Builds an Empire

  • Motivation – fierce competition for wealth in Europe  wanted GOLD

  • 1492: Columbus reached the West Indies on behalf of the Spanish crown

    • F&I financed 3 more trips

    • Intended to turn Caribbean lands into colonies – lands controlled by another nation

  • Conquistadors – conquerors – would soon arrive in Central & South America

    • Claimed lands for Spain

    • Sought silver & gold


Cort s conquers mexico

Cortés Conquers Mexico

  • Landed in Mexico in 1519

  • Encountered native Aztecs

    • Reached capital Tenochtitlan

    • Montezuma II – Is Cortés a god?

      • Agreed to give gold

    • Killed many Aztecs in 1521

  • Conquered Tenochtitlan (and the Aztecs in general) in 1521

    • Spanish weapons superior

    • Other native groups helped Cortés

    • Disease – measles, mumps, smallpox, & typhus – killed off many natives


Pizarro in peru

Pizarro in Peru

  • 1532- Francisco Pizarro reached Peru & conquered Incan Empire

  • Met ruler Atahualpa near city Cajamarca

    • Spanish: 200 man army; Incan: 30,000 man army

    • Spanish ambushed & kidnapped Atahualpa

    • Received ransom of gold and silver

    • But, killed Atahualpa anyway

    • Incans retreated

  • Captured capital Cuzco without a struggle in 1533

  • Other Regions

    • Maya in the Yucatan & Guatemala


Spanish empire by mid 16 th century

Spanish Empire by mid-16th Century

  • 4 Viceroyalties

    • New Spain

    • New Granada

    • Peru

    • Rio de la Plata


Spanish patterns of conquest

Spanish Patterns of Conquest

  • Used techniques of the reconquista (conquering Muslims)

    • Live among them

    • Impose culture on them

  • Relations between Spanish and natives common  creation of Mestizo population

  • Oppressed natives

    • Encomienda system – forced labor of natives on farms, ranches, or in mines

      • Effectively put natives at bottom of social hierarchy

      • Spoken against by Bartolome de lasCasas  new laws forbade enslavement in 1542

        • Too far from Spain to be enforced

    • Imposed culture

    • Close control on trade, esp. silver & gold

      • Sugar cane profitable  need workers

        • Slaves from Africa by 1530s

        • # Descendents from Africans outnumbered Europeans within a few generations

      • Laws prohibited trade with other nations

  • Spread authority of Catholic Church


Spanish colonial society

Spanish Colonial Society

  • Blended Spanish, African, and Amerindian cultures

  • Native styles of buildings, foods, and use of canoes

  • Christianity and horses present

  • African cooking, farming, dance, and song

  • Social Hierarchy

    • Spanish-born Europeans

    • Creoles (Spanish born in the colonies)

    • Mestizos (Spanish + Native)

    • Mulattos (Native + African)

    • Natives (Amerindian)

    • Africans (Descendents of slaves)

  • Valued education – role fulfilled by the Church


Pushing north

Pushing North

  • 1540 – empire stretched from Mexico to Peru

  • 1540-41 – Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led expedition through Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas

    • Little gold

    • Mostly priests settled to explore & colonize

      • MANY Christian missionaries sought converts


Effects of conquistadors

Effects of Conquistadors

  • Conquered millions of natives with guns and disease

  • Seized valuable goods, esp. gold and silver

    • Sent abroad to the Philippines for trade

    • Made Spain wealthy & powerful…

    • But quickly led to rapid inflation & declined the empire

  • Natives – split

    • Stop resisting & convert to Christianity

    • Still fight & protect culture

  • Changed patterns of global encounters

    • Map connected by sea routes for trade (not just land routes)


Remember

Remember:

  • Conquered the Aztecs, Incas, and other natives easily with guns and disease

  • Empire spread from California to Chile in the Americas

  • Social hierarchy ranged from Africans (slaves) at the bottom to Spanish-born whites at the top

    • Placement of mixed people on the scale indicates the commonality of interbreeding that was still seen as less-acceptable

  • Economy focused on treasures (gold, silver) and later plantations (sugar, tobacco)


The columbian exchange

The Columbian Exchange

  • Interaction between Europe, Africa, and the Americas beginning in the late 15th century (and Asia)

  • Important – it’s not a trade route

  • Describes exchange of plants, animals, people, and diseases among different areas of the world


Shocking facts about the columbian exchange

Shocking Facts about the Columbian Exchange

  • Plants native to the Americas

    • Tomatoes (not Italy)

    • Potatoes (not Ireland)

    • Corn

  • Things introduced to the Americas

    • Onions

    • Olives

    • Coffee

    • Peaches

    • Wheat, Barley, & Rice

    • Cattle, sheep, pigs, horses

  • Lots of people died

    • Europeans brought diseases (smallpox, influenza, typhus, measles, malaria, diphtheria, & whooping cough)

    • Amerindians had no immunities against the diseases

  • Lots of people lived

    • New, easily grown crops introduced to Europe and Asia

    • Population BOOMED!


Columbian exchange crash course

Columbian Exchange Crash Course

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HQPA5oNpfM4


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