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Chapter 11 Fat Soluble Vitamins: ADEK. Chapter 11 - FSV. Characteristics of fat-soluble vitamins Do not dissolve in water, but dissolve in fat or organic solvents. Dietary fat soluble vitamins need bile for absorption. The fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D,E and K

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Chapter 11

Fat Soluble Vitamins:


Chapter 11 fsv
Chapter 11 - FSV

Characteristics of fat-soluble vitamins

  • Do not dissolve in water, but dissolve in fat or organic solvents.

  • Dietary fat soluble vitamins need bile for absorption.

  • The fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D,E and K

  • Found in the fats and oils of foods.

  • Stored in the liver and fat tissue until needed

  • not readily excreted from the body.

  • Risk of toxicity.

Storage of vitamins in the body
Storage of vitamins in the body

  • Vitamins A, D and E:

    • These three fat-soluble vitamins can accumulate in the liver and fat tissue of the body and are not readily excreted. Long-term intakes more than the RDA can be toxic, particularly vitamins A and D.

  • Vitamin K:

    • The other fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin K, is readily excreted from the body.

Absorption transport
Absorption & transport

  • The fat-soluble vitamins, like lipids are absorbed with dietary fat.

    • Bile aids in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.

    • The GI must function adequately for efficient uptake of fat-soluble vitamins.

  • Under normal conditions, healthy individuals will absorb 40-90% of fat-soluble vitamins.

Absorption transport1
Absorption & Transport

Fat malabsorption interfere with the absorption of FSV.

  • Unabsorbed fat is excreted as feces.

  • The following conditions adversely affect the uptake of fat-soluble vitamins:

    • Cystic fibrosis

    • Crohn’s disease

    • Celiac disease

    • Certain medications

Vitamin A

Family of compounds called Retinoids:

  • Retinol – supports reproductive functions

    • Found in animal foods and nutrient supplements.

    • Can converted to retinoic acid and retinal in the body.

  • Retinal – Aid in vision

  • Retinoic acid – regulates growth

  • ~90% of retinoids are absorbed

  • These are preformed Vitamin A – form that the body readily uses. Found only in animal sources

Provitamin a carotenoids
Provitamin A = carotenoids

  • Found in plant sources

  • Not biologically available until they are changed into one of the retinoids in the body

  • There are over 600 different carotenoids only 3 can be converted to vitamin A

    • Beta carotene (most common form)

    • Alpha carotene

    • Beta- cryptoxanthin

  • Accounts for 25 – 35 percent of dietary vitamin A consumed in the US

Functions of vit a
Functions of Vit A

  • Essential for healthy eyes

  • Promotes cell differentiation

    • Determines what cell becomes in your body

    • Supports reproductive system, development of limbs, heart eyes and ears

  • Promotes bone and teeth growth

  • Play a role in immunity and preventing infections by creating white blood cells

  • Carotenoids, which act as antioxidants, decrease the damaging effects of free radicals.

Sources of vitamin a
Sources of Vitamin A


  • Preformed Vit A

    • Organ meats (liver), milk, cereals, cheese and eggs are the most popular sources of

  • Provitamin A (carotenoids)

    • Fruits: peaches, apricots, cantaloupes, mangoes, papaya

    • Vegetables: tomatoes, carrots, winter squash, sweet potatoes, broccoli, romaine lettuce, collard greens and spinach.

    • Adding as little as 1 tablespoon of vegetable oil to your diet can increase absorption of carotenoids by as much as 25%

Vitamin a
Vitamin A

RDA – can be measured in micrograms of retinoic activity equivalents (RAE) or in international units (IU). 1 RAE = 3.3 IU

  • 900 microgram for men

  • 700 microgram for women

  • Upper limit 3,000 microgram/day


  • Night blindness – difficulty seeing at dusk, can’t adjust from day light to dark

  • Vitamin A deficiency is the main cause of non-accidental blindness (Xerophthalmia)

  • Many die after blindness as a result of infection.

    • The eye becomes prone to infections when the conjunctiva is damaged.

    • Infections can spread systemically throughout the body.


  • Hypervitaminosis A - is a condition that results from excessive intake of vitamin A from supplements

  • Cause defective physical development during early development of the fetus resulting in birth defects

    • Even 3X RDA vitamin A is considered risky during pregnancy.

  • Accutane is associated with congenital malformations result involving the head and brain.

  • FDA has recommended that women of childbearing years limit their vitamin A intake to 100% RDA


  • High consumption of vitamin A has been linked to osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures

  • Provitamin A carotenoids in foods are not toxic

  • Extra carotenoids are stored in the liver and in the fat under the skin, causing carotenodermia

Vitamin d calceferol
Vitamin D/calceferol

  • Also called the “sunshine vitamin” because it is made with the help of ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight

  • Vitamin D enters your body in an inactive form

  • The kidneys convert dietary vitamin D into the active form

  • Precursor = body’s cholesterol

Vitamin d calceferol1
Vitamin D/ calceferol

  • Functions of Vit D

    • Helps bone health by regulating calcium and phosphorus concentration in the blood

    • When blood concentration of calcium is low, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone signals the kidney to decrease excretion of calcium and phosphorous

  • Sources of vit D

    • Fortified milk, cereals, yogurt, fatty fish

Vitamin d
Vitamin D

Adequate Intake:

  • 5 micrograms/day for 19-50 yr

  • 10 micrograms/day for 51-70 yr

  • 15 micrograms/day for >70 yr

  • Upper level: 50 micrograms/day

Vitamin d1
Vitamin D


  • Rickets in children (soft bones)

    • poor bone mineralization

    • Bowed legs

    • Unable to hold up their own weight when standing up

    • Recently researchers have found a rise in rickets among children,

      • linked to increase consumption of soft drinks

      • Limited outdoor activities

      • Fear of skin cancer

      • Air pollution reduces ultraviolet rays of the sun by as much as 60%

Vitamin d2
Vitamin D

Osteomalacia - adult form of rickets

  • Occurs in women with decreased calcium and phosphorus intake

  • Causes bone weakness and pain

  • Can lead to osteoporosis

Vitamin d toxicity
Vitamin D Toxicity

Hypervitaminosis D – associated with over-consumption of supplements

  • Increased calcium withdrawal in bones and intestines

  • Increased calcium and phosphorous

    concentrations in the blood (hypercalcemia)

  • Increase calcium deposits in kidneys, lungs, blood vessels and heart

Vitamin e
Vitamin E

  • Vitamin E is an effective antioxidant

    • Prevent oxidation of lipids, vit A and LDL to prevent build-up in the arteries

    • Neutralize free radicals before they damage cell membranes

    • Prevents blood clotting in the blood by acting as anticoagulant

  • There are 8 different forms, only one is active in the body (alpha- tocopherol)

  • The synthetic is only half as active as the natural

Vitamin e1
Vitamin E


  • Polyunsaturated plant oils (vegetable oils)

  • Nuts and seeds

  • Leafy green vegetables

  • Fortified cereals


    Adults need 15 milligrams/day

    Upper limit is 1,000 milligrams

Vitamin e2
Vitamin E


  • Erythrocyte hemolysis in premature infants (red blood cell destruction causing anemia)

    Toxicity from synthetic form or fortified foods

  • increase risk of hemorrhage

  • A deficiency of vitamin K can increase the anticoagulant effect

Vitamin k
Vitamin K

There are two forms of vitamin K:

  • Menaquinone – synthesized by the intestinal tract

  • Phylloquinone – found in green plants


  • Essential for blood clotting

  • Vitamin K plays a role synthesizing clotting factors

  • Without vit k a simple cut on the finger would cause uncontrollable bleeding

  • Synthesis of bone protein (osteocalcin) that regulates blood calcium.

Vitamin k1
Vitamin K

  • Inadequate amount of vitamin K may contribute to osteoporosis, associated with increased risk of hip fractures


  • Intestinal bacteria can make vitamin K but not enough to meet all of the body’s needs

  • Leafy green vegetables

  • Cabbage family vegetables

  • Vegetable oils and margarine

Vitamin k2
Vitamin K


  • Newborn infants receive a single dose of vitamin K at birth because of a sterile intestinal tract to prevent hemorrhagic disease

  • Rare in healthy individuals


  • No known adverse effect from consuming too much vitamin K from food or supplement

  • Interferes with anticlotting medication (coumadin)

Recommendation for vitamin k
Recommendation for Vitamin K

Adequate Intake (based on amount that is consumed on average)

Infants: 2 – 2.5 microgram

Children: 30 – 55 microgram

Men: 60 – 120 microgram

Women: 60 – 90 microgram

Homework extra credit
Homework/extra credit

5 points

Complete the vitamin/mineral evaluation form posted on the course website