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Chapter 15 – Technology in Special Education. Chelsea Pogar, Morgan Jones, Daisha Batts, Ashley Lynch, and Dyche Randolph. Technology Integration Example – Helping Students with disabilities blend in -. There are 6 Phases to helping students with disabilities blend in with technology.

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Chapter 15 technology in special education

Chapter 15 – Technology in Special Education

Chelsea Pogar, Morgan Jones, Daisha Batts, Ashley Lynch, and Dyche Randolph


Technology integration example helping students with disabilities blend in
Technology Integration Example – Helping Students with disabilities blend in -

  • There are 6 Phases to helping students with disabilities blend in with technology.

  • Phase 1: Assess technological pedagogical content knowledge

  • Phase 2: Determine relative advantage

  • Phase 3: Decide on objectives and assessments

  • Phase 4: Design integration strategies

  • Phase 5: Prepare the instructional environment

  • Phase 6: Evaluate and revise


Introduction
Introduction disabilities blend in -

  • Education for students with special needs encompasses strategies for BOTH those with physical and mental deficits and those with special gifts or talents.

  • The term impairment, disability and handicap are often used synonymously.

  • Differences among these concepts have important implications for the use of technology in the classroom.


Introduction continued
…Introduction continued… disabilities blend in -

  • Impairment: involve abnormality or loss of function in a physical, anatomical, or psychological structure.

    • May be congenital or acquired through accident of disease.

  • Impairment limits an individual from performing an activity in a manner normally expected for human being (communicating with others, hearing, movement, manipulating objects, hearing, movement, manipulating objects, etc.) we refer to this as a disability.

  • In the United States, federal law recognizes several types of disabilities.

  • Most citizens know one or more individuals who have been affected by a disability in some form:

    • deaf, deaf-blind, hard of hearing, mental retardation, multihandicapped, orthopedically impaired, other health impaired, seriously emotionally disturbed, specific learning disability, speech impaired, or visually handicapped.


Introduction continued1
…Introduction Continued… disabilities blend in -

  • A handicap arises when an individual is unable to fulfill a role due to an impairment or disability.

  • Special education technology has been a part of the United States educational system since at least 1879

    • 1879- The United States Congress made a $10,000 grant for the production of Braille materials by the American Printing House for the Blind.

    • 1958- funding was provided for captioning films for the deaf


Introduction continued2
… Introduction Continued… disabilities blend in -

  • Federal government established two Special Education Instructional Materials Centers (SEIMCs)

    • Purpose was to explore ways to make educational technologies more accessible to special education teachers

    • The two original eventually expanded to a network of 14 regional SEIMCs, the Council for Exceptional Children ERIC Clearinghouse, four Regional Media Centers for the Deaf, and a Network Coordinating Office.

    • They were all disbanded later


Introduction continued3
… Introduction Continued… disabilities blend in -

  • The emphasis on technology for individuals with disabilities had been though of as assistive technology—

    • Extending the abilities of an individual in ways that provide physical access (wheelchairs, braces and sensory access (Braille, closed captioning).

  • General goals of specific application technology is to harness the potential of technology in ways that offer an individual with a disability increased opportunities for learning, productivity, and independence-opportunities that otherwise would not be available.


What does tpack look like in special education
What does TPACK look like in Special Education? disabilities blend in -

  • TPACK: technological pedagogical content knowledge

    • In any discipline is the perfect union of three knowledge domains (content, pedagogy, and technology) to develop a knowledge base from which a teacher can view a lesson and understand how technology can enhance the learning opportunities and experiences for the students while also knowing the correct pedagogy to enhance the learning of the content.


Tpack continued
…TPACK Continued… disabilities blend in -

  • In special education, a teacher is incorporating the TPACK principles when he or she reviews a lesson plan and, without hesitation, thinks about the pedagogy and technology that can be used to meet the unique needs of each student in his or her caseload and what adaptations might be needed to be made to that pedagogy and technology.


Issues and problems in special education
Issues and problems in Special Education disabilities blend in -

  • A number of issues affect the delivery of special education services.

  • There are six current issues that have an impact on uses of technology in special education:

    • Legal and Policy Directives

    • Implications of the No Child Left Behind Act for Special Education

    • Need for Trained Personnel

    • Requirements for Inclusive Classrooms

    • Universal Design for Learning

    • Web Accessibility


Legal and policy directives
Legal and Policy Directives disabilities blend in -

  • Special Education, more than any other areas of education, is governed by laws and policies.

  • Teachers, administrators, and special education technology specialists must be well versed in federal and state law, policies, and procedures.


Legal and policy directives continued
…Legal and Policy Directives Continued… disabilities blend in -

  • The following laws promote the use of technology by individuals with disabilities:

    • The Technology-Related Assistance Act for Individuals with Disabilities (Public Law 100-407), passed in 1988, provided funding for statewide systems and services to provide assistive technology devices and services to individuals with disabilities.

    • Reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education act (IDEA) in 1997 (Public Law 105-17) mandates that every individualized education program (IEP) team consider assistive technology when planning the educational program of an individual with a disability.


Implications of the no child left behind act for special education
Implications of the No Child Left Behind Act for Special Education

  • Has had significant influence in special education

  • One of the most important components of the law focuses on Annual Yearly Progress (AYP)

    • Requires documentation that each school is meeting specific performance criteria established in the law

    • Benefit of these new AYP requirements is that they focus public attention on the persistent underachievement of students with physical disabilities.


Need for trained personnel
Need for Trained Personnel Education

  • Most teachers begin their career with minimal experience using technology in ways that

    • Enhance their own productivity

    • Enhance the effectiveness of instruction and the success of all students

    • Enable them to acquire and use assistive technology for students in need of performance support.

  • Current assistive technology delivery system was originally developed to respond to the needs of students with low-incidence disabilities. The size of the high incident population requires a rethinking of service delivery systems.


Requirements for inclusive classrooms
Requirements for Inclusive Classrooms Education

  • Students have been Mainstreamed (placing special education students in separate classes) but since the 1990s Students have been included in general education classes known as Inclusion

  • Although students with disabilities have been included in classrooms, general education is still limited.

  • Appropriate modifications have to be made for students with, physical, mental and psychosocial disabilities

  • Assistive Technology is needed for students in Special Education to help them to gain high scores with the NCLB expectations


Universal design
Universal Design Education

  • Universal Design is the understanding of the design for physical environments of the disabled

  • One successful example of Universal Design are curb cuts

  • Universal Design has evolved into a wider range of accessibility for the disabled.

  • Recently, computers have been

    programmed with software with

    universal design concepts

  • Accessibility panels

    are available on every

    computer


Applying universal design for learning
Applying Universal Design for Learning Education

  • The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) believes that Universal Design is a critical tool in helping students with disabilities to access the general education curriculum

  • CAST and the US Department of Education’s Office of Special Programs established the National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum to help create practical approaches for improved access to the general by weaving together new curricula, teaching practices and policies.

  • Link to CAST website http://www.cast.org/index.html




Web accessibility
Web Accessibility Education

  • Refers to the push to make websites usable for people with disabilities

  • Just like Universal Design of Learning, the purpose of web accessibility is to provide greater access of information for all users by designing websites for accessibility from the ground up

  • Criteria

  • Text equivalents with screen readers

  • Large or enlargeable images for people with low vision

  • Underlining and coloring links for the colorblind

  • Making website navigable with the keyboard only


Summary of technology integration strategies for special education
Summary of Technology Integration Strategies for Special Education

  • I. Students with physical disabilities

  • A. Use alternate keyboards such as intellitools’ intellikeys

  • B. They use joysticks or switches instead of keyboards

  • C. And they use voice recognition software such as Dragon Talk’s Dragon Naturally Speaking

  • II. Students with Sensory Disabilities

  • Use text to speech readers such as JAWS for Windows

  • They also use optical character recognition software or CCTV


Summary of technology integration strategies for special education1
Summary of Technology Integration Strategies for Special Education

  • III. Students with Communication Difficulties

  • Also use text-to-speech products such as WizCom’s Quicktionary pen

  • Use talking word processors such as Don Johnston’s Write: OutLoud

  • IV. Students with Cognitive Disabilities

  • Use digital cameras to capture images of objects and environments

  • Use specialized calculators such as Programming Concepts’ Coin-U-Lator


Strategies for students with cognitive disabilities
Strategies for Students with Cognitive Disabilities Education

  • A variety of conditions may impair an individual’s cognitive abilities. These disabilities are often referred to as cognitive disabilities, developmental disabilities or mental retardation.

  • Mild disabilities are considered to be the most prevalent type of disability. They include learning disabilities, serious emotional disabilities and mental retardation. The important issue for these students is not physical access to the technology, but reading, writing, memory and retention of the information. As a result, educators planning for the needs of students with mild disabilities often use productivity software as well as other software materials and online resources that can be used with many low performing students.


Using multimedia to help meet students special needs
Using Multimedia to Help Meet Students’ Special Needs Education

  • I. Reading skills

  • A. A characteristic associated with many disabilities is difficulty learning how to read and in developing grade level reading skills. AS a result, special education teachers tend to devote a great deal of time and energy to the teaching of reading and are likely to use a variety of software products to remediate students’ reading abilities.

  • II. Writing Skills

  • Many tools have been developed to support students who struggle in various phases of the writing process. For students who are unable to write by hand, who have illegible handwriting, or who find handwriting extremely tedious, voice recognition software may be an option. Some students who are slow typists or have difficulty spelling can benefit from word prediction software.


Using multimedia to help meet students special needs1
Using Multimedia to Help Meet Students’ Special Needs Education

  • III. Math Skills

  • Calculators are an important intervention for students with disabilities. A specialized calculator, the Coin-U-Lator, was developed to assist students having difficulties counting coins and making change. Other strategies have been developed around simple graphing software materials, as well as drills,


Moderate and severe cognitive disabilities
Moderate and Severe Cognitive Disabilities Education

  • I. For individuals with moderate and severe cognitive disabilities, considerable effort is devoted to ensuring that they acquire daily living skills such as personal hygiene, shopping, and use of public transportation. Software is available to help teach functional skills such as money management and employability skills must also be taught.


Moderate and severe cognitive disabilities1
Moderate and Severe Cognitive Disabilities Education

  • Teachers working with students with moderate and severe cognitive disabilities need to be familiar with an array of devices that provide an alternative means for accessing the computer since the typical keyboard may be problematic for the students. Alternate keyboards such as the Intellikeys keyboard can be used to create customized keyboards.


Strategies for special education instruction
Strategies for Special Education Instruction Education

Students with physical Disabilities

  • Use alternative keyboards such as Intellitools’ IntelliKeys

  • Use joysticks or switches instead of keyboards

  • Use voice recognition software such as Dragon Talk’s Dragon Naturally


Strategies for special education instruction1
Strategies for Special Education Instruction Education

Students with Sensory Disabilities

  • Use text to speech readers such as JAWS for Windows

  • Use optical character recognition (OCR) software or CCTV


Strategies for special education instruction2
Strategies for Special Education Instruction Education

Students with Communication Difficulties

  • Use text to speech products such as WizCom’s Quicktionary pen

  • Provide a wide range of tools to support student writers

  • Use talking word processors such as Don Johnston’s write: OutLoud


Strategies for special education instruction3
Strategies for Special Education Instruction Education

Students with Cognitive Disabilities

  • Use digital cameras to capture images of objects and environments

  • Use specialized calculators such as programming Concepts’ Coin-U-Lator


Strategies for students with gifts and talents
Strategies for Students with Gifts and Talents Education

  • The primary issue surrounding and shaping education for gifted students is how to identify students who merit these “special services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school”.

  • “…The increasingly sophisticated use of technological tools and related methods will provide gifted students with greater connectivity and independence in the future.”


Strategies for students with gifts and talents1
Strategies for Students with Gifts and Talents Education

  • -Electronic Communities

  • -Research


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