Anatomic and physiologic differences
Download
1 / 12

Anatomic and Physiologic Differences - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 599 Views
  • Updated On :

Anatomic and Physiologic Differences. Lesson 2. Anatomic and Physiologic Differences. There are fundamental anatomic and physiologic differences between children and adults that directly effect How assessment is performed How children respond to illness and injury

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Anatomic and Physiologic Differences' - kellsie


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Anatomic and physiologic differences2 l.jpg
Anatomic and Physiologic Differences

  • There are fundamental anatomic and physiologic differences between children and adults that directly effect

    • How assessment is performed

    • How children respond to illness and injury

    • How treatment and transportation decisions are made


Pediatric airway considerations l.jpg
Pediatric Airway Considerations

  • More anterior than the adult

    • less head tilt to open the airway

  • Smaller diameter of airway than the adult

    • easily blocked by secretions or blood

  • Large tongue in relation to jaw size

    • likely to cause obstruction when child is unconscious



Slide5 l.jpg

Pediatric Airway Considerations

Infants prefer to breathe through the nose.

  • Nasal obstructions can cause respiratory distress.


Breathing considerations l.jpg
Breathing Considerations

  • Small children are dependent on contraction of the diaphragm to breathe.

  • A child’s primary response to respiratory distress is to increase the rate and effort of breathing.


Slide7 l.jpg

A child may have pronounced retractions of the chest wall because the chest wall is less muscular and has more flexible bones.


Breathing considerations8 l.jpg

Pediatric Respiratory Rates because the chest wall is less muscular and has more flexible bones.

Age

Rate (breaths per minute)

Infant (birth–1 year)

30–60

Toddler (1–3 years)

24–40

Preschooler (3–6 years)

22–34

 School-age (6–12 years)

18–30

Adolescent (12–18 years)

12–16

Breathing Considerations

A silent chest is an ominous sign of low blood oxygen in the pediatric patient.


Circulation considerations l.jpg
Circulation Considerations because the chest wall is less muscular and has more flexible bones.

  • Children compensate efficiently in shock by increasing heart rate and vasoconstriction but then decompensate rapidly.

  • Mental state change is often an early indicator of shock.


Slide10 l.jpg

Pediatric Pulse Rates because the chest wall is less muscular and has more flexible bones.

Age

Low

High

 Infant (birth–1 year)

100

160

Toddler (1–3 years)

90

150

Preschooler (3–6 years)

 80

140

 School-age (6–12 years)

70

120

Adolescent (12–18 years)

60

 100

Bradycardia is a late sign of low blood oxygen in the pediatric patient.


Circulation considerations11 l.jpg
Circulation Considerations because the chest wall is less muscular and has more flexible bones.

  • Hypovolemia can develop from vomiting or diarrhea in children.

  • Blood pressure is an unreliable indicator of perfusion in the pediatric patient.


Slide12 l.jpg

Low-Normal Pediatric Systolic Blood Pressure because the chest wall is less muscular and has more flexible bones.

Age*

Low Normal

Infant (birth–1 year)

greater than 60*

Toddler (1–3 years)

greater than 70*

Preschooler (3–6 years)

greater than 75

School-age (6–12 years)

greater than 80

Adolescent (12–18 years)

greater than 90

*Note: In infants and children aged three years or younger, the presence of a strong central pulse should be substituted for a blood pressure reading.


ad