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Agenda

Life Cycle Assessment based Tools for the Development of Integrated Waste Management Strategies for Cities and Regions with Rapid Growing EconomiesJan den BoerEmilia Szpadt, Johannes JagerTechnische Universität Darmstadt Institute WAR (Institute for Water Supply and Groundwater Protection, Wastewater Technology, Waste Management, Industrial Material Flows and Environmental Planning)


Agenda

Agenda

  • Introduction of LCA-IWM

  • The need for WM planning tools

  • Sustainability assessment tool

  • Applications and difficulties


Agenda

LCA-IWM within EU research Programme

EU 5th Framework Programme1998-2002

Research Programme: Environment and Sustainable Development (EESD)

Key-action “The City of Tomorrow

and Cultural Heritage”

4.1 Sustainable city planning and rational resource management

LCA-IWM

4.1.2 Improving the quality of urban life


Agenda

Consortium

12 Partners representing 9 European States

EU Member States:

Germanythe NetherlandsAustriaLuxemburgSpain Greece

EU Accession States:

Poland, Lithuania Slovakia


Agenda

Consortium

  • Project coordinator: TU Darmstadt, Institute WAR

  • Project partners: 8 Universities and 4 Consultancies

  • Involved Municipalities:

    • Barcelona, Reus (Spain)

    • Wroclaw (Poland)

    • Nitra (Slovakia)

    • Xanthi (Greece)

    • Kaunas (Lithuania)

  • Time frame:

    • 2002 - 2005


Agenda

Targeted user:waste management decision maker (planner) inEU Accession Countries and South European Regions

Objectives of LCA-IWM:

  • Develop decision support for:

  • Planning of new

  • Optimisation of existing waste manag. systems

  • Two tools are proposed:

  • Waste Prognostic model

  • Criteria and quantitative indicators for assessment of the

    • environmental,

    • economic

    • social performance

  • of integrated waste management strategies


Agenda

Why waste prognostic model is needed

Data sources: Williams, P.T., Szpadt, R., 1999

Factors to be analysed in the model: product/packaging design, socio-economic indicators, consumption patterns etc.


Agenda

Why waste management planning tools are neededCase study: Poland

selective collection – app. 2% of MSW;

the rest landfilled

Over 1000 landfills

Acute capacity problems (over 80% of yearly WM spendings)


Agenda

Why waste management planning tools are neededCase study: Poland

bottom lining5% accord. EU standards 25% - one layer lining

70% no isolation

leachatecollection 20% of all landfills

gas installation

10% of landfills

10 plants – el. motor


Agenda

Why waste management planning tools are neededCase study: Poland

  • Agreed with the EU transitional periods:

  • Packaging directive – 5 years

  • Landfill directive – 3 years

  • Polish Waste Law:

  • … the next urgent step is to develop waste management plans …

  • at regional level: by June 2003

  • at the county level by December 2003

  • at the commune level by June 2004


Agenda

Waste management assessment model

Scenario 1

Energy

Scenario 2

Scenario 3

Energy

Incineration

Incineration

Incineration

Compost

Mech.-Biol. Pretreatment

Composting

Landfill

Landfill

Landfill

Landfill

Scenario 4

Energy

Mech.-Biol. Pre-treatment

Cementkiln

Scenario 5

Energy

Materials

Compost

Composting

Mech.-Biol. Pretreatment

Recycling

Landfill


Agenda

Assessment tool – first phase

  • Development of the model

    • Modular system

    • General structure agreed upon

    • Input and output parameters of all modules are identified

  • Determination of criteria and indicators

    • Environmental, Economic & Social

    • LCA-approach

    • Few, simple and transparant


Agenda

Assessment tool structure

Prognostic

model

INVENTORY

Waste generation

economic indicators

environm.

indicators

social indicators

Temporary

storage module 1

Temporary

storage module n

ASSESSMENT

Collection module 1

Collection module n

economic criteria

environm. criteria

social criteria

Transport module 1

Transport

module n

AGGREGATION

Treatment module 1

Treatment module n

Impact

Products: energy and secondarymaterials

reference

scenario 1

scenario n

reference

scenario 1

scenario n

reference

scenario 1

scenario n

Credit

module 1

Credit

module n

Material / energy flow

(waste, products

Information flow

(emissions, costs)

Impact

Impact

LEGEND


Assessment tool first phase

LCA approach

Assessment tool – first phase

Environmental criteria and indicators

Group 1) Based on the EU recycling and recovery targets and reduction of waste landfilling

Group 2) Based on general objectives of WM with regard to protection of human health and the environment protection

Recovery/recycling quotas


Assessment tool first phase1

?

Few

Simple

Understandable

Relevant

Assessment tool – first phase

Group 2 - LCA Impact Categories

  • Baseline impact categories (CML method):

    • Depletion of abiotic resource

    • Impacts of land use (land competition)

    • Climate change

    • Stratospheric ozone depletion

    • Human toxicity

    • Ecotoxicity:

      • Freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity

      • Marine aquatic ecotoxicity

      • Terrestrial ecotoxicity

    • Photo-oxidant formation

    • Acidification

    • Eutrophisation


Agenda

Life Cycle Impact Assessment

Methods:CML

Eco-Indicator

UBA

Etc.

Use of nature

Nutrification

Resource consumption

Smog formation

Inventory

Impact assessment

Results

Aggregation

Impact categories

Area

CO2

Global Warming Potential

SO2

Environmental Impact

NOx

Acidification

PCDD/F

Human toxicity

Pb

Hg

PCB

Nat. gas

Crude oil

Reference

Scenario 1

Scenario 2

Water cons

Screening/Streamlining LCA

BOD

COD

etc.

Environmental Impact

Dominance analysis

Waste Management relevance


Assessment tool first phase2

Incineration

Compost

Mech.-Biol. Pretreatment

Composting

Landfill

Landfill

Relevance verification through full LCA modelling

Assessment tool – first phase

Darmstadt, basic Scenario: only landfill

Credits:

Darmastadt, current Scenario:

Energy

Energy

Secondary materials:

Plastics (DSD) GlassPaper Metals

Recycling

Credits:

Energy, FertilisersPaper, Metals, Plastics, Glass

Landfill


Agenda

Time horizon

Assessment tool – first phase

Relevance determination (CML)


Assessment tool first phase3

Social acceptance

Social sustainability

Social function

Social equity

Costs allocation

Benefits distribution

Quality of employment

Perceived risk

Wasteminimisation

Odour, Noise

Visual impact

Private and urban space consumption

Waste valorisation

Local employment creation

minimisation

Assessment tool – first phase

  • Social criteria and indicators

How to quantify?

How to combine?


Agenda

Assessment tool - second phase

  • Establishing relation of inventory data to indicators to criteria

  • Quantification of standard module inventory data

  • Combination of modules

  • Aggregation


Agenda

Application of results

  • Verification phase in the involved municipalities

  • Composition of a Handbook

  • Tools and Handbook freely available for European municipalities


Agenda

Difficulties

  • Europe wide consortium

  • Standard LCA-software too general

  • Country specific cost calculation

  • Aggregation and quantification of social indictors and criteria

  • Should social impacts of crediting modules be accounted for?

  • Choice of technology

  • Aggregation/integration of economic, environmental and social results


Agenda

Thank you for your attention!


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