1607-1763. Unit 1 Part 3. The New England Colonies. Remember James I gave out 2 charters in 1606 The First was to the London Co. which settled Jamestown
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Remember James I gave out 2 charters in 1606
The First was to the London Co. which settled Jamestown
The Second charter was given to the Plymouth Co (Later to be called the Council of NE) which was to make settlements in the northern region of “Virginia”
Remember, at first it was ALL Virginia
Puritans were people who wanted to PURIFY the Anglican Church (the Church of England)
In England they wanted separation of church and state
Pilgrims were sometimes called Separatists because they had given up on purifying the Anglican Church and had separated from it.
There were only 35 Pilgrims who came over on the Mayflower in 1620. They were supposed to settle in the Southern region under the jurisdiction of the London Co.
BUT the voyage was rough.
December storms blew the way off course and they ended up in Cape Cod Bay in Mass.
After the death of Elizabeth I, religious dissenters were increasingly persecuted
Many found refuge in the Netherlands
The Dutch were very tolerant. This is partly why they had such success in trade
No one in the Netherlands was persecuted for religious reasons BUT there WERE problems for the transplanted Puritans and Pilgrims
Since all religions were tolerated, the Pilgrims and Puritans were surrounded by infidels!
Foreigners could find work in the Netherlands but the good-paying jobs were reserved for Dutch citizens
English children were growing up Dutch!
New England: Mass. Conn., RI, NH
Mid-Atlantic: NY, NJ, Penn, Delaware
Southern: VA, NC, SC, Maryland, Georgia
Charter: the governor is chosen by the people of the colony
Proprietary: the governor is or is chosen by the proprietor
Royal: the Governor is chosen by the King
All colonies were Royal Colonies
Cromwell’s followers = Roundheads
Charles I’s followers = Cavaliers
Cavaliers migrated to VA when it was clear that the King was losing the war
Lord Baltimore (George Calvert) got a charter from Charles I
Established Maryland as a bastion for Catholics
200-300 sailed on the Arc and the Dove
Established a headright system to attract new settlers
1660 Charles II gave a huge area to 8 favorites S. of VA
Offered the Headright system
Insured that nearly all white settlers owned property and had political power
Drafted the Fundamental Constitutions…
Unusual and unworkable: provided for a social hierarchy…a heredity nobility
First settlers by 1680…Charleston.. Thriving fur trade and food to W. Indies. Also tobacco…prosperous
Northern most region near Albemarle was poorer and more back-woodsy
By 1712 separated into 2 Royal colonies: N and S Carolina
Huguenots to S. Carolina when the Edict of Nantes was revoked
NOTE: Dutch smugglers made it impossible for the English to enforce their trade regulations
1664 English captured Dutch New Amsterdam without a fight. And renamed it New York
The Dutch did not consider the colony valuable enough to fight for