Martti Muukkonen, ThD, MSS: Religious Roots of European Welfare Models. Abstract.
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Gösta Esping-Andersen's division of European welfare regimes to social-democratic Nordic, liberal Anglo-Saxon and conservative Central European could be named as Lutheran, Anglican-Calvinistic and Catholic, as well.
This paper examines, first, how the European welfare institutions emerged in Byzantion from where they diffused to the West. Second, the paper gives general view how the tension between the Oriental co-operative thinking and Hellene competitive thinking can be seen through the history of European poverty. Third, the paper gives an overview how the Catholic, Lutheran and Anglican-Calvinistic social ethics were formulated and how they influenced their respective societies. finally, the paper discusses how the European integration and globalisation might lead to reformulation of the social ethics of these churches.