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Questions? Comments? Last minute Phonology questions?. Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Exx: 2, 4, 13, 14, 19, 20 due 5/1 Problem Set 3 due 5/6 MIDTERM is Tuesday 5/6!. Morphology Slide. 1. Morphology. The part of the grammar that is concerned with words and word formation

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Questions comments last minute phonology questions

Questions? Comments?

Last minute Phonology questions?


Questions comments last minute phonology questions

Chapter 4

  • Chapter 4 Exx: 2, 4, 13, 14, 19, 20 due 5/1

  • Problem Set 3 due 5/6

  • MIDTERM is Tuesday 5/6!


Questions comments last minute phonology questions

Morphology

Slide

1

Morphology

  • The part of the grammar that is concerned with words and word formation

  • Lexicon - your mental dictionary - the filing cabinet drawer for how words are put together and what the meanings of these different parts are

  • Word - the smallest free form found in language (it does not have to occur in fixed position with respect to other forms)


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Morphology

Slide

2

Morphology

  • Morpheme - the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function (builder has 2 morphemes: build and -er)

  • Simple words - contain only 1 morpheme

  • Complex words - contain more than 1 morpheme

  • Free morpheme - a morpheme that can be a word by itself

  • Bound morpheme - a morpheme that must be attached to another element


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Morphology

Slide

3

Morphology

  • Identifying Morphemes

    • A morpheme can carry info about meaning or function. Haunt cannot be broken down into h + aunt because only aunt has meaning. Bats can be broken down into 2 morphemes: bat + -s (where the 2nd morpheme means more than one).

    • The meanings of individual morphemes should contribute to the overall meaning of the word. pumpkin cannot be broken down into pump + kin because the meaning of pumpkin has nothing to do with that.

    • A morpheme is not the same thing as a syllable. treat = 1 morpheme and 1 syllable; dracula = 1 morpheme and 3 syllables; -s (PLURAL) in English = 1 morpheme and is not even 1 syllable.

    • Often during word formation, changes in pronunciation and/or spelling occur. These do not affect a morpheme’s status as a morpheme.

      scare + -y = scary (root = scare); scary + -er = scarier (root = scare)


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Morphology

Practice

4

Morphology Practice


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Morphology

Practice

5

Morphology Practice

How to solve morphology problems: isolate and identify all the morphemes in the data. To do this, identify recurring strings of sounds and match them with recurring meanings.

Mende (Sierra Leone)

What is the morpheme meaning ‘the’?

-i

If [sale] means ‘proverb’, what is the form for ‘the proverb’?

[salei]

If [kpindii] means ‘the night’, what does [kpindi] mean?

‘night’


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Morphology

Practice

6

Morphology Practice

How to solve morphology problems: isolate and identify all the morphemes in the data. To do this, identify recurring strings of sounds and match them with recurring meanings.

Turkish slide - What morphemes mean


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Morphology

Practice

8


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Morphology

Practice

8


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Morphology

Practice

9

Morphology Practice

Turkish - What is the order of morphemes


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Morphology

Practice

10

Morphology Practice

Turkish handout - English/Turkish translation


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Morphology

Slide

11

Morphology

  • Allomorphs - the variant forms of a morpheme

  • English indefinite article has 2 allomorphs: a and an

  • English plural has 3 allomorphs - what are they? cats, dogs, horses


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Morphology

Slide

12

Morphology

  • Word structure

  • Root - the core of the word and carries the major component of meaning

  • Lexical category - Noun (N), Adjective (A), Verb (V), Preposition (P)

  • Affixes - general term for a morpheme that does not have a lexical category, and is always bound

  • Base is the form to which an affix is attached (most cases it is the root)


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Morphology

Practice

13

Morphology Practice


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A

Morphology

Slide

14

Morphology

  • Word trees - (Af) means Affix

  • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not)

  • kindness

  • 1) Identify the root

kindness


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N

Af

Morphology

Slide

15

Morphology

  • Word trees - (Af) means Affix

  • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not)

  • kindness

  • 2) Attach the suffix and determine lexical category of the word

A

kindness


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A

Morphology

Slide

16

Morphology

  • Word trees - (Af) means Affix

  • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not)

  • kindnesses

  • 1) Identify the root

kindnesses


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N

Af

Morphology

Slide

17

Morphology

  • Word trees - (Af) means Affix

  • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not)

  • kindness

  • 2) Attach the 1st affix and determine lexical category of the word

A

kindnesses


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N

Af

Morphology

Slide

18

  • Word trees - (Af) means Affix

  • Base is the thing that an affix affixes to (sometimes the root, sometimes not)

  • kindness

  • 3) Attach the 2nd affix to the new base and determine lexical category of the resulting word

N

A

Af

kindnesses


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Morphology

Slide

19

Morphology

  • Affixes can be suffixes, prefixes or infixes

    • Infixes must be morphemes inserted into the root of the word, and not just adding another prefix or suffix to an existing one

    • freakin’ as an infix: abso-freakin-lutely not *absolute-freakin-ly

    • a true English infix?

  • Problems: some words that have an affix no longer allow the root to be a free form - unkempt, inept, overwhelmed - any others?

  • Some words appear to have affixes but are considered one morpheme - receive, submit, permit (still formed with other affixes like they do have affixes though - permission, reception)


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A

A

Af

Af

A

Af

V

Morphology

Slide

20

Morphology

  • Derivation - an affixational process that forms a word with a meaning and/or category distinct from its base (see Table 4.6, p. 119)

  • Complex derivations - when there are multiple affixes

  • Structurally ambiguous words - unlockable

V

Af

V

unlockable

unlockable


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Morphology

Slide

21

Morphology

  • Constraints on derivation - suffix -ant cannot affix to native English words, only borrowed words from Latin (p. 121)

  • Sometimes constraint is phonological - -en can only attach as a suffix to a monosyllabic base ending in an obstruent.


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Morphology

Slide

22

Morphology

  • 2 different classes of affixes:

  • Class 1 affix - triggers phonological changes in consonants or vowels of the base (see Table 4.9, p. 127) - stress shifts (not talking about spelling)

  • Class 2 affix - phonologically neutral, having no effect on base or stress of resulting word (see Table 4.10, p. 127) (not talking about spelling)

  • Usually, Class 2 affixes cannot come between Class 1 affixes and the root.

  • *fearlessity, but ok fearlessness, relational, divisiveness


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A

A

Af

N

Af

love li er

Morphology

Practice

23

Morphology Practice

Draw a word tree for lovlier -- How many morphemes?

How many morphemes in ugly?

uglier?

1

2


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Morphology

Slide

24

Morphology

  • Inflection - the modification of a word’s form to indicate grammatical information of various sorts

  • The base that inflectional forms are added to is sometimes called a stem (like root for derivational affixation)

  • This is different from derivation

  • Not all inflection is through affixes


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Morphology

Slide

25

English only has 8 inflectional suffixes! (memorize them)(Table 4.15, p. 132)


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Morphology

Slide

26

Morphology

  • There are many irregular forms in English that don’t use the affixation of inflection as discussed. (go + PAST = goed? no, went)

  • Inflection versus Derivation

    • Inflection does not change the grammatical category or the meaning of the word to which it is affixed

    • Derivation can change the category and does change the meaning (although still related) (All English prefixes are derivation even though they do not change the lexical category of the word)

    • Derivational affixes have to occur closest to base. neighborhoods but not *neighborshood

    • Inflectional affixes can combine with nearly every possible word (plural -s) but derivational affixes can combine with a more limited set (-ment) (Table 4.16, p. 130)


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Morphology

Slide

27

Morphology

  • Inflection versus Derivation

    • Special case of -ing: There are 3 -ing affixes!

    • 1) Derivational: Verb + -ing = Noun - I watched the dancing in the room.

    • 2) Derivational: Verb + -ing = Adjective - The dancing frog

    • 3) Inflecitonal: Verb + -ing = Verb - The frog is dancing


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Morphology

Slide

28

Morphology

  • Inflection - in English is usually marked with affixes (suffixes)

  • Can also be marked through Internal Change - a process that substitutes one nonmorphemic segment for another to mark a grammatical contrast

    • Ablaut (vowel alterations): sing, sink, drive - sang, sank, drove OR feet and geese from foot and goose - what about dive?

  • Suppletion - replaces a morpheme with an entirely different morpheme in order to indicate a grammatical contrast

    • to be in English is made up of a few different forms not related to each other through affixation or internal change: is, was, were, are, am, be


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Morphology

Slide

29

INFLECTION

  • Reduplication - full or partial - the repetition of all or part of a word to indicate a grammatical or semantic contrast

    • See Table 4.19, p. 132 - Do we do this in English? ugly ugly

  • Tone placement - different pitch to indicate different tense (Spanish has an inflectional stress to indicate tense and person - hablo versus habló)

  • Agreement – when one word is inflected to match a certain grammatical properties of another word – number, person (Eng. 3rd Sing Present –s: he speaks

  • Case - is a change in a word’s form to indicate its grammatical role (subject, direct object, indirect object, etc.)

    • He/his/him, I/mine/me

Morphology

Accusative

Genitive


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Morphology

Slide

30

Morphology

  • Compounding - compound word is the combination of two already existing words

  • The right-most word determines the lexical category of the new compound word (greenhouse is a noun because house is a noun although green is an adjective) - the morpheme that determines the category is called the head

  • Spelling is not consistent with how compounds are represented - high school, high-school, highschool

  • Pronunciation differences between compound and A + N sequence (Table 4.11, p. 124) - blackbird versus black bird

  • Inflectional suffixes can only be added to second form in compound (tense or plural) so drop kicked but not *dropped kick


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Morphology

Slide

31

Morphology

  • Compounds that you can build the meaning out of the two words are endocentric - steamboat, airplane, bathtub

  • Compounds that you cannot build the meaning out of the two words are exocentric - redhead, redneck (not type of head or neck)

  • See Table 4.13, p. 125 for more examples

  • Compounds in other languages? Any examples? earworm in German


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Morphology

Slide

32

Morphology

  • Other morphological phenomena

    • Cliticization - clitics must be attached to another word (host)

      • I’m leaving now. - sometimes indicated in English with apostrophe

      • They’re here now

      • French - Jean t’aime

      • Clitics are not like affixes because they belong to their own lexical category (verb, noun, etc.) different from their host


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Morphology

Slide

33

Morphology

  • Other morphological phenomena - Word formation processes

    • Conversions - changing one word from one category to another without the use of affixes (zero derivation) - invalid to invalid (Table 4.22, p. 135) stress shift often occurs in English

    • Clipping - the shortening of a longer form to derive a new form - fax, porn, blog - why blog and not eblog?

    • Blends - blends two words together - smog, brunch, absotively

    • Backformation - reanalysis of possible affix to form backwards the root into a new form (that didn’t really exist) burglar - burgle; editor - edit


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Morphology

Slide

34

Morphology

  • Other morphological phenomena - Word formation processes

    • Acronyms - the pronunciation of letters - scuba, laser, NASA, NATO - not abbreviation which is just pronouncing the letters - LA - if say [la], then acronym – for fun: RAS syndrome

    • Initialism – just pronouncing the string of letters DC, LA

    • Onomatopoeia - words created to sound like the thing they describe - zip, buzz, hiss, sizzle - different words in diff langs for same sound - how does a dog bark in French? Spanish? English?

    • Coinage - the creation of a new word from scratch (not how much a person is worth!) - Teflon, spandex - flig


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Morphology

Practice

35

Morphology Practice

Identify the word formation process


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Morphology

Slide

36

Morphology


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Morphology

Slide

37

Morphology


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Morphology

Practice

38

Morphology Practice

Morphophonemics


Midterm on tuesday have a safe and happy h a l l o w e e n

Midterm on Tuesday!

Have a safe and happy Halloween!


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