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Resolving Barriers for Participation in Outfitted Trips. Duarte B. Morais, Ph.D. Acknowledgements. America Outdoors David Brown Pennsylvania State University Traci Zillifro Gyan Nyaupane Deborah Kerstetter. Purpose.  Non-participants Constraints  Participants Information sources

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Resolving Barriers for Participation in Outfitted Trips

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Resolving Barriers for Participation in Outfitted Trips

Duarte B. Morais, Ph.D.


Acknowledgements

America Outdoors

David Brown

Pennsylvania State University

Traci Zillifro

Gyan Nyaupane

Deborah Kerstetter


Purpose

Non-participants

  • Constraints

    Participants

  • Information sources

  • Motivations

  • Decision making roles

  • Type of group


1st mailing

2nd mailing

3rd mailing

1 week

2 weeks

2 weeks

251 surveys received

121 surveys received

218 surveys received

Methods

Survey

8 pages / 4 sections

Incentive for participation

Population

Outdoor enthusiasts

14 states, 157 individuals in each state(N=2,200)


Sample

  • Sample – 590 usable surveys (30.6%)

  • 51.6% Females, 48.4% Males

  • Average age: 48.1 years old

  • 18.0% Managers, 13.6% Retired, 11.3% Sales, 7.9% Teacher

  • Income > $55k (71.3 %)


 Non-participants

Outdoor enthusiasts who did not participate in any of the activities

  • 59.2% of sample

  • 57.3% Females, 42.7% Males

  • Average age: 48.7 years old

  • 18.0% Managers, 14.0% Retired, 11.9% Sales

  • 79.9% Income > $55K

  • 94.5% Caucasian/white

  • 32.3% Suburbs, 18.7% Sml city, 15.9% Lg city, 14.1 % Rural

  • 52.9% College, 28.2% Graduate school, 18.7% High school


Participation Rates

RaftingCanoeingHorseback

Southwest 19.3% 14.7% 4.6%

Northwest 20.7% 25.4% 4.6%

Southeast 20.5% 25.3% 3.8%

Midwest 14.4% 26.8% 2.5%

Northwest 9.9% 16.7% 3.9%


Constraints

Reasons why individuals do not participate in an activity despite being interested

  • Intrapersonal constraints

    • Stress, perceived skill, risk

  • Interpersonal constraints

    • Availability of friends or family

  • Structural constraints

    • Free time, family-life-cycle, monetary costs,


Constraints – Results

RaftingCanoeingHorseback

Intrapersonal 2.58 2.31 2.53 *

Interpersonal 2.84 2.92 2.99

Structural 3.15 2.89 3.09 *

(1=not important, 5=very important)

  • Intrapersonal are least important – little control

  • Inter & Structural most important – more control

  • Canoeing is perceived as less threatening

  • Canoeing is perceived as less costly ($, time)


Constraints – Implications

  • Offer trips with varying levels of challenge

  • Offer instruction programs

  • Educate about actual risks and exertion

  • Offer short options

  • Offer family fun trips

  • Do not use discounts to increase demand

  • Help customers educate others


 Participants

Outdoor enthusiasts who participated in each activity

RaftingCanoeingHorseback

Females 38.3% 39.3% 47.6%

OccupationMgt, RetMgt, Sales Mgt, Teach

Income>$55k 85.9% 85.9% 71.4%

CommunitySub, LCt Sub, STw Sub, LCt


Sources of Information

Importance of sources of information about the outfitter

RaftingCanoeingHorseback

1 Previous trips 4.0 4.0 3.9

2 Friends/family 3.9 4.0 3.7

3 Brochure 3.6 3.3 3.2

4 Internet 3.1 2.8 2.8

5 Newsletter/catalog 2.9 2.6 2.8

6 Tourism agency 2.6 2.5 2.5

7 Newspaper/magazine 2.4 2.3 2.8

(1=not important, 5=very important)


Sources of Info – Implications

  • Encourage trial – experience is most important

  • Help customers become advocates – WOM advertising is very important

    • Merchandize with logo

    • Group information packet

    • Internet forums, postcards, digital pictures

  • Do not neglect brochures

  • Embrace Internet marketing

  • Use newsletters and catalogs for nurturing relationships with loyal customers


  • Motivations

    Importance of motivation factors to take the trip

    • Self improvement

      Self confidence, who I am, feel independent, capable of doing

    • Escape life

      Physical exercise, release tensions, avoid responsibilities / clatter

    • Family fun

      • Do something with family, bring family closer


    Motivations – Results

    RaftingCanoeingHorseback

    Self improvement 2.86 2.58 3.03

    Escape life 3.00 3.34 3.46

    Family fun 3.53 3.96 3.54

    (1=not important, 5=very important)

    • Family fun most important motivation

    • Self improvement least important motivation

    • Canoeing least Self improvement

    • Canoeing highest family fun


    Motivations - Implications

    • Develop family trips and promotions – social factors are important motivation

    • Benchmark canoeing outfitters in attracting families

    • Promotions for rafting and canoeing should focus on “overcoming challenges” (item level)

    • Promotions for horseback riding should focus on learning about one’s potential & escape (item level)

    • Excitement and independence are not important for horseback riders


    Decision-making Roles

    Level of involvement in decision-

    making roles preparing for the trip

    RaftingCanoeingHorseback

    Gathering info 43.5% 43.7% 44.2%

    Sharing info w/ group 42.3% 40.8% 42.5%

    Final purchase 52.0% 45.2% 65.4%

    Make reservations 48.7% 46.7% 55.4%

    Coordinating travel 43.7% 46.3% 55.4%


    D-M Roles - Results

    Do all customers collaborate in

    pre-trip decision-making roles?

    Frequency charts

    No

    K-means Cluster Analysis

    Three kinds of customers

    40% low involvement

    25% collaborative role

    35% exclusive control


    D-M Roles – Implications

    • Not all customers/groups are the same!

      • Take charge leaders

      • Team work

      • Come along

    • Provide assistance to take charge leaders

    • Come alongs are good because of WOM and trials

    • Create communication system to work with teams


    Type of Group

    Motivations and behavior are closely

    related to type of social group

    RaftingCanoeingHorseback

    Spouse 56.8% 74.2% 61.5%

    Children 40.9% 47.0% 46.2%

    Friends 47.1% 50.0% 46.2%

    Business peers 13.8% 6.1% 0.0%

    Church groups 10.3% 7.6% 0.0%

    Tour groups 5.7% 1.5% 0.0%

    Youth groups 8.0% 4.5% 0.0%


    Type of Group - Results

    Motivations differences between family and non-family segment

    Rafting CanoeingHorseback

    Fam/NonF Fam/NonF Fam/NonF

    Self improvement2.80 / 2.90 2.65 / 2.38 2.88 / 3.27

    Escape life3.02 / 2.97 3.49 / 2.92 3.38 / 3.60

    Family fun3.97 / 2.95 4.20 / 3.26 4.13 / 2.60

    (1=not important, 5=very important)

    • Expected Vs observed don’t match!!!


    Type of Group – Implications

    • Target families – more than half of the participants belong to family segment

    • Rafting outfitters provide experiences attractive to everyone

      • Various types of groups

      • Small differences in motivations between Fam / Nonfam

  • Canoeing outfitters have been very successful in attracting families

  • Horseback outfitters attract non-family market by focusing on escape & self improvement


  • Summary

    • Various factors are constraining the participation of the majority of outdoor enthusiasts

      • Educating about risks and physical challenge

      • Help overcome time and family constraints

  • Maximize own experience and WOM are most important sources of information

    • Encourage advocacy and trial

  • Social/family motivations are most important

    • Only for family segment

  • Various types of customers

    • Come alongs, team workers, take charge


  • Resolving Barriers for Participation in Outfitted Trips

    Duarte B. Morais, Ph.D.

    The Pennsylvania State University

    228 Mateer Building

    University Park, PA 16802-1307

    [email protected] (814) 865-5614


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