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Resolving Barriers for Participation in Outfitted Trips. Duarte B. Morais, Ph.D. Acknowledgements. America Outdoors David Brown Pennsylvania State University Traci Zillifro Gyan Nyaupane Deborah Kerstetter. Purpose.  Non-participants Constraints  Participants Information sources

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Resolving Barriers for Participation in Outfitted Trips

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Resolving barriers for participation in outfitted trips l.jpg

Resolving Barriers for Participation in Outfitted Trips

Duarte B. Morais, Ph.D.


Acknowledgements l.jpg

Acknowledgements

America Outdoors

David Brown

Pennsylvania State University

Traci Zillifro

Gyan Nyaupane

Deborah Kerstetter


Purpose l.jpg

Purpose

Non-participants

  • Constraints

    Participants

  • Information sources

  • Motivations

  • Decision making roles

  • Type of group


Methods l.jpg

1st mailing

2nd mailing

3rd mailing

1 week

2 weeks

2 weeks

251 surveys received

121 surveys received

218 surveys received

Methods

Survey

8 pages / 4 sections

Incentive for participation

Population

Outdoor enthusiasts

14 states, 157 individuals in each state(N=2,200)


Sample l.jpg

Sample

  • Sample – 590 usable surveys (30.6%)

  • 51.6% Females, 48.4% Males

  • Average age: 48.1 years old

  • 18.0% Managers, 13.6% Retired, 11.3% Sales, 7.9% Teacher

  • Income > $55k (71.3 %)


Non participants l.jpg

 Non-participants

Outdoor enthusiasts who did not participate in any of the activities

  • 59.2% of sample

  • 57.3% Females, 42.7% Males

  • Average age: 48.7 years old

  • 18.0% Managers, 14.0% Retired, 11.9% Sales

  • 79.9% Income > $55K

  • 94.5% Caucasian/white

  • 32.3% Suburbs, 18.7% Sml city, 15.9% Lg city, 14.1 % Rural

  • 52.9% College, 28.2% Graduate school, 18.7% High school


Participation rates l.jpg

Participation Rates

RaftingCanoeingHorseback

Southwest 19.3% 14.7% 4.6%

Northwest 20.7% 25.4% 4.6%

Southeast 20.5% 25.3% 3.8%

Midwest 14.4% 26.8% 2.5%

Northwest 9.9% 16.7% 3.9%


Constraints l.jpg

Constraints

Reasons why individuals do not participate in an activity despite being interested

  • Intrapersonal constraints

    • Stress, perceived skill, risk

  • Interpersonal constraints

    • Availability of friends or family

  • Structural constraints

    • Free time, family-life-cycle, monetary costs,


Constraints results l.jpg

Constraints – Results

RaftingCanoeingHorseback

Intrapersonal 2.58 2.31 2.53 *

Interpersonal 2.84 2.92 2.99

Structural 3.15 2.89 3.09 *

(1=not important, 5=very important)

  • Intrapersonal are least important – little control

  • Inter & Structural most important – more control

  • Canoeing is perceived as less threatening

  • Canoeing is perceived as less costly ($, time)


Constraints implications l.jpg

Constraints – Implications

  • Offer trips with varying levels of challenge

  • Offer instruction programs

  • Educate about actual risks and exertion

  • Offer short options

  • Offer family fun trips

  • Do not use discounts to increase demand

  • Help customers educate others


Participants l.jpg

 Participants

Outdoor enthusiasts who participated in each activity

RaftingCanoeingHorseback

Females 38.3% 39.3% 47.6%

OccupationMgt, RetMgt, Sales Mgt, Teach

Income>$55k 85.9% 85.9% 71.4%

CommunitySub, LCt Sub, STw Sub, LCt


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Sources of Information

Importance of sources of information about the outfitter

RaftingCanoeingHorseback

1 Previous trips 4.0 4.0 3.9

2 Friends/family 3.9 4.0 3.7

3 Brochure 3.6 3.3 3.2

4 Internet 3.1 2.8 2.8

5 Newsletter/catalog 2.9 2.6 2.8

6 Tourism agency 2.6 2.5 2.5

7 Newspaper/magazine 2.4 2.3 2.8

(1=not important, 5=very important)


Sources of info implications l.jpg

Sources of Info – Implications

  • Encourage trial – experience is most important

  • Help customers become advocates – WOM advertising is very important

    • Merchandize with logo

    • Group information packet

    • Internet forums, postcards, digital pictures

  • Do not neglect brochures

  • Embrace Internet marketing

  • Use newsletters and catalogs for nurturing relationships with loyal customers


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    Motivations

    Importance of motivation factors to take the trip

    • Self improvement

      Self confidence, who I am, feel independent, capable of doing

    • Escape life

      Physical exercise, release tensions, avoid responsibilities / clatter

    • Family fun

      • Do something with family, bring family closer


    Motivations results l.jpg

    Motivations – Results

    RaftingCanoeingHorseback

    Self improvement 2.86 2.58 3.03

    Escape life 3.00 3.34 3.46

    Family fun 3.53 3.96 3.54

    (1=not important, 5=very important)

    • Family fun most important motivation

    • Self improvement least important motivation

    • Canoeing least Self improvement

    • Canoeing highest family fun


    Motivations implications l.jpg

    Motivations - Implications

    • Develop family trips and promotions – social factors are important motivation

    • Benchmark canoeing outfitters in attracting families

    • Promotions for rafting and canoeing should focus on “overcoming challenges” (item level)

    • Promotions for horseback riding should focus on learning about one’s potential & escape (item level)

    • Excitement and independence are not important for horseback riders


    Decision making roles l.jpg

    Decision-making Roles

    Level of involvement in decision-

    making roles preparing for the trip

    RaftingCanoeingHorseback

    Gathering info 43.5% 43.7% 44.2%

    Sharing info w/ group 42.3% 40.8% 42.5%

    Final purchase 52.0% 45.2% 65.4%

    Make reservations 48.7% 46.7% 55.4%

    Coordinating travel 43.7% 46.3% 55.4%


    D m roles results l.jpg

    D-M Roles - Results

    Do all customers collaborate in

    pre-trip decision-making roles?

    Frequency charts

    No

    K-means Cluster Analysis

    Three kinds of customers

    40% low involvement

    25% collaborative role

    35% exclusive control


    D m roles implications l.jpg

    D-M Roles – Implications

    • Not all customers/groups are the same!

      • Take charge leaders

      • Team work

      • Come along

    • Provide assistance to take charge leaders

    • Come alongs are good because of WOM and trials

    • Create communication system to work with teams


    Type of group l.jpg

    Type of Group

    Motivations and behavior are closely

    related to type of social group

    RaftingCanoeingHorseback

    Spouse 56.8% 74.2% 61.5%

    Children 40.9% 47.0% 46.2%

    Friends 47.1% 50.0% 46.2%

    Business peers 13.8% 6.1% 0.0%

    Church groups 10.3% 7.6% 0.0%

    Tour groups 5.7% 1.5% 0.0%

    Youth groups 8.0% 4.5% 0.0%


    Type of group results l.jpg

    Type of Group - Results

    Motivations differences between family and non-family segment

    Rafting CanoeingHorseback

    Fam/NonF Fam/NonF Fam/NonF

    Self improvement2.80 / 2.90 2.65 / 2.38 2.88 / 3.27

    Escape life3.02 / 2.97 3.49 / 2.92 3.38 / 3.60

    Family fun3.97 / 2.95 4.20 / 3.26 4.13 / 2.60

    (1=not important, 5=very important)

    • Expected Vs observed don’t match!!!


    Type of group implications l.jpg

    Type of Group – Implications

    • Target families – more than half of the participants belong to family segment

    • Rafting outfitters provide experiences attractive to everyone

      • Various types of groups

      • Small differences in motivations between Fam / Nonfam

  • Canoeing outfitters have been very successful in attracting families

  • Horseback outfitters attract non-family market by focusing on escape & self improvement


  • Summary l.jpg

    Summary

    • Various factors are constraining the participation of the majority of outdoor enthusiasts

      • Educating about risks and physical challenge

      • Help overcome time and family constraints

  • Maximize own experience and WOM are most important sources of information

    • Encourage advocacy and trial

  • Social/family motivations are most important

    • Only for family segment

  • Various types of customers

    • Come alongs, team workers, take charge


  • Resolving barriers for participation in outfitted trips24 l.jpg

    Resolving Barriers for Participation in Outfitted Trips

    Duarte B. Morais, Ph.D.

    The Pennsylvania State University

    228 Mateer Building

    University Park, PA 16802-1307

    [email protected] (814) 865-5614


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