Trends in Functional Status and Disability among the Elderly
Download
1 / 41

Trends in Functional Status and Disability among the Elderly - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 80 Views
  • Uploaded on

Trends in Functional Status and Disability among the Elderly. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics. Ellen Kramarow Jennifer Akerblom NCHS Data Users Conference July 2004. Overview.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Trends in Functional Status and Disability among the Elderly' - kelda


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Trends in Functional Status and Disability among the Elderly

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

National Center for Health Statistics

Ellen Kramarow

Jennifer Akerblom

NCHS Data Users Conference

July 2004


Overview
Overview

  • Disability and Functioning

  • Definitions

  • Trends

  • Data Warehouse on Trends in Health and Aging

  • Examples


Definitions
Definitions

Conceptual Frameworks (Nagi, IOM, WHO)

  • Pathology

  • Impairment

  • Functional Limitation

  • Disability


Definitions1
Definitions

Disability is a complex concept

  • Intersection of individual’s capacity with environment

  • Measurement in surveys does not necessarily capture all aspects of concept


Definitions2
Definitions

Disability Measurement

  • Self-report vs. performance measures

  • Survey design considerations (e.g., institutionalized vs. noninstitutionalized, age groups, cross section vs. panel, self-report vs. proxy)


Definitions3
Definitions

Disability Measurement

  • Activities of Daily Living (ADL)

  • Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)

  • Physical functioning (aka Nagi items)


Definitions4
Definitions

Disability Measurement

  • Question wording

    • Difficulty

    • Needs/receives help

    • Ability to perform with/without help or equipment


Trends
Trends

Recent review in JAMA (Freedman et al., 2002)

  • Declines in IADL limitations

  • Declines in physical functioning (Nagi) limitations

  • Mixed evidence on ADLs (forthcoming paper shows decline in some measures from mid-1990s)


Trends1
Trends

Data Warehouse on Trends in Health and Aging

  • A collection of data tables providing information on trends of health and health care use by older Americans.  Viewable online or with Beyond 20/20 software.

  • Supported with funding from the National Institute on Aging (NIA)

  • http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/agingact.htm


Medicare current beneficiary survey mcbs
Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS)

  • Began in 1991

  • Survey sample:

    • N = 12,000 (target sample size)

    • community and facility dwelling Medicare beneficiaries

  • Questions include:

    • health care use and cost

    • sociodemographic characteristics

    • health status

    • physical functioning


Mcbs and adls
MCBS and ADLs

  • Question:

    • Because of a health or physical problem, do you have any difficulty bathing/showering, dressing, eating, getting in/out of a bed/chair, walking, or using the toilet?


CommunityResidents Age 65 and over


Limitation of Activity: Difficulty Performing Activities of Daily Living, by Age, Residence, Sex, Race and Ethnicity. MCBS, 1992-2002

  • Among all individuals age >=65:

    • Decrease in reported ADL limitations between 1992-2002

  • Among individuals living in a facility:

    • Increasing trend in reported difficulty eating and/or using the toilet


National health interview survey nhis
National Health Interview Survey Daily Living, by Age, Residence, Sex, Race and Ethnicity. MCBS, 1992-2002(NHIS)

  • Initiated in 1957

  • Surveys the civilian non-institutionalized population, N = approx. 100,000 persons from about 43,000 households

  • Collects information on the amount, distribution and effects of illness and disability

  • Survey redesigned in 1997


Nhis and adls
NHIS and ADLs Daily Living, by Age, Residence, Sex, Race and Ethnicity. MCBS, 1992-2002

  • Question:

    • Because of a physical, mental, or emotional problem, do you need the help of other persons with personal care needs? If yes, do you need the help of other persons with bathing, dressing, eating, getting in/out of bed/chair, using the toilet, including getting to the toilet, and getting around inside the home?


Needing help with adls by age sex race and hispanic origin nhis 1997 2001
Needing Help with ADLs by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin. NHIS, 1997-2001

  • From 1997-2001, a decreasing trend in reported need for help with bathing/showering was observed

  • No significant change occurred in the percentage of people reporting they need help with other ADLs


Mcbs and physical functioning
MCBS and Physical Functioning Origin. NHIS, 1997-2001

  • Question:

    • How much difficulty, if any, do you have stooping, lifting, reaching, grasping, and walking a quarter mile?

  • Response Options:

    • No difficulty at all, A little difficulty, Some difficulty, A lot of difficulty, Not able to do, Refused, Don’t know


Limitation of Activity: Difficulty in Physical Functioning by Age, Residence, Sex and Race. MCBS, 1992-2002

  • Community dwelling individuals reported:

    • Increased difficulty stooping

    • Decreased difficulty lifting, reaching and grasping

  • Facility dwelling individuals reported:

    • Increased difficulty lifting


Nhis and physical functioning
NHIS and Physical Functioning by Age, Residence, Sex and Race. MCBS, 1992-2002

  • Question:

    • By yourself, without using any special equipment, how difficult is it for you to walk a quarter mile, climb, stand, sit, stoop, reach, grasp, carry, and push?

  • Response Options:

    • Not at all difficult, Only a little difficult, Somewhat difficult, Very difficult, Can’t do at all, Do not do this activity


Any difficulty in physical functioning by age sex race and hispanic origin nhis 1997 2002
Any Difficulty in Physical Functioning by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin. NHIS, 1997-2002

  • 65% of the respondents reported ‘any difficulty’ with at least 1 of 9 physical tasks

  • Percentage reporting ‘any difficulty’ has remained constant from 1997-2002


Discrepancy in stooping measure
Discrepancy in Stooping Measure and Hispanic Origin. NHIS, 1997-2002

  • MCBS asks about “stooping, crouching, or kneeling”

  • NHIS asks about “stooping, bending, or kneeling”

  • Percent “unable” to perform stooping is similar in both surveys

  • Unclear why estimates are different


Summary
Summary and Hispanic Origin. NHIS, 1997-2002

  • MCBS data from 1990s show decline in ADL limitation among noninstitutionalized older persons.

  • NHIS shows a decline in percent needing help with bathing/showering only from 1997 to 2001.

  • For many items, no change seen during time period covered by NHIS.


Summary1
Summary and Hispanic Origin. NHIS, 1997-2002

  • MCBS shows declining percent with difficulty in lifting, reaching, and grasping. Stooping measure is a puzzle.

  • Data on institutionalized generally show increase in disability.


Summary2
Summary and Hispanic Origin. NHIS, 1997-2002

  • A lot of data on disability and functioning among the elderly are available.

  • Estimates across sources may differ because of differences in question wording, sample design, and other factors.

  • Making sense of the data takes work and attention to detail.


ad