Gmos wine media round table cape town 25 june 2008
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GMOs & Wine Media Round Table Cape Town, 25 June 2008. GM Yeast in the wine industry. Threat or opportunity?. Florian F. Bauer. Institute for Wine Biotechnology Department of Viticulture and Oenology Stellenbosch University. Wine and technology?. Wine and technology?.

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GMOs & Wine Media Round Table Cape Town, 25 June 2008

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Gmos wine media round table cape town 25 june 2008

GMOs & Wine Media Round TableCape Town, 25 June 2008

GM Yeast in the wine industry

Threat or opportunity?

Florian F. Bauer

Institute for Wine Biotechnology

Department of Viticulture and Oenology

Stellenbosch University


Wine and technology

Wine and technology?


Wine and technology1

Wine and technology?

  • Consumer (our) expectations…

    • Good aroma and taste: Wine should be of consistently high quality

    • …at an affordable price

    • Be healthy: Needs to satisfy WHO and specific national criteria with regard to health regulations

    • Without damaging the environment: Production needs to limit environmental impact

  • and a highly competitive global market

    =

    Need for technological innovation


Why yeast the scientific case

Why Yeast? The scientific case…

  • What is “Yeast”?

     White powder?

    Baking tool?

     Converts sugar into alcohol?

  • Unicellular organism - 1st biotechnological application (at least 6 KY B.C. )

  • S. cerevisiae 1st microorganism seen under microscope

  • 1st eukaryotic genome to be sequenced (1996)

  • 1st to be used for the production of pharmaceuticals using recombinant DNA technology


Why yeast the scientific case1

Why Yeast? The scientific case…

  • One of the most studied organisms (next to Homo sapiens)

  • Well understood (≠ Homo sapiens): Best annotated genome

  • Accumulated knowledge and technological know-how

    • “Model system”

      • Nobel prizes in medicine

    • Scientific potential

      • All biotechnological tools

      • Understanding of genetic and biochemical networks (omics)

      • Understanding the consequences of modifications (traditional selection and genetic engineering)

      • Tools for monitoring of modifications


Why yeast the economic case

Why Yeast? The economic case…

  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces the four leading fermentation products (tons/year) worldwide

    • Baking

    • Brewing

    • Wine fermentation

    • Single cell proteins

  • The yeast strain determines essential characteristics of the final product

    • Nutritional value

    • Aroma

    • Flavour

  • Other applications:

    • Pharmaceuticals

    • Fine chemicals

    • Bio-ethanol

  • Pressing need for new yeast strains

    • Increasing competition between yeast manufacturers

    • 150 – 200 Rand/kg of speciality yeast vs 10 Rand/kg for baker’s yeast

    • New consumer demands

      • Environmentally friendly production practices

      • Health-related characteristics of the fermentation products


Yeast science and application

Yeast - science and application

Scientifically best understood eukaryotic organism

+

Most used microorganisms in food and other biological production processes

=

innovation potential


Yeast and wine

Yeast and wine

  • Commercial starter cultures inoculated after pressing of grapes

  • More than 200 commercial strains

    • Differences in

      • Processing properties

      • Organoleptic properties of the wine

  • Many yeast-related aspects of wine making can be improved

  • The molecular nature of many of these traits is understood - - - but many can only be improved through GM


The ml01 application

The ML01 application

  • Application made by Dr HJJ van Vuuren, Director: Wine Research Centre University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada

  • Object of application:

    • Malolactic yeast ML01

  • Already approved for use by FDA (USA) and Health Canada

  • What does it do?

    • What is malolactic fermentation (MLF)?

      • Carried out after alcoholic fermentation by lactic acid

        bacteria

      • Malolactic fermentation is essential in most red and many white wines for microbiological stabilisation and wine quality.


Malolactic fermentation

COOH

COOH

CH

Malolactic

enzyme

2

HOCH

+

+2

(NAD

,

Mn

)

HOCH

CH

3

COOH

L-

malic

acid

L- lactic acid

+ CO

2

MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION

  • Malolactic fermentation

  • Three reasons for MLF:

    • Lowering of acidity (deacidification)

    • Aroma compounds

    • Microbiological stability

  • Commercial starter cultures: Oenococcus oeni

    • Tolerant to lower pH, Ethanol, SO2

    • Low temperatures


The malolactic yeast ml01

The malolactic yeast ML01

  • Contains two trans-genes that encode

    • A malic acid transporter (from Schizosaccharomyces pombe)

    • A malolactic enzyme (from Oenococcus oeni)

  • Efficiently converts malate to lactate during alcoholic fermentation


Advantages disadvantages

Advantages - Disadvantages

+

  • Reduced processing time

  • Reduced risk of spoilage

  • Reduced health risks

    - ?

  • Changes to the aroma and flavour of the wine (Tasting data appear to show tasters prefer wine made with ML01).

  • Generic GM-technology related questions: Consumer response, environmental risks


Comments health canada

Comments: Health Canada

Wines derived from the genetically modified wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

ML01

Health Canada has notified Dr. Hennie van Vuuren of the University of British Columbia that it has no objection to the food use of a genetically modified wine yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ML01, for use in winemaking in Canada, and of wines derived from the use of this yeast. The Department conducted a comprehensive assessment of wine yeast ML01 according to its Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods. These Guidelines are based upon internationally accepted principles for establishing the safety of foods with novel traits.

See: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/gmf-agm/appro/nf-an107decdoc-eng.php


The malolactic yeast ml011

The malolactic yeast ML01

Why rejected in SA?

  • Scientifically relevant questions were addressed in application

    • The GM yeast shows less molecular differences (transcriptome, proteome, metabolome) from its parental strain than the differences observed between this parent and other commercial wine yeast strains (health, ecology).

    • The two genes are naturally present in high numbers during wine fermentation (no significant increased risk of HGT) (ecology).

  • Socio-economic reasons:

    • Wine industry

    • Export market

  • Understandable in current situation, but will such decisions block all development in the field?


Other developments wine and health

Other developments: Wine and Health

  • Increased levels of healthy substances

    • Phenolic compounds

    • Resveratrol (stilbenes)

  • Reduced levels of unwanted compounds

    • Carcinogens

      • Ethyl carbamate

    • Neurotoxins

      • Biogenic amines

    • Asthmatic chemical preservatives

      • Sulfites


Increasing levels of resveratrol

  • Increased levels of resveratrol

Phenylalanine

Resveratrol 

PAL

C4H

Cinnamic acid

Coumaric acid

4CL

VST

4CL

p-Coumarolyl CoA

Malonyl-CoA

VST

PAL = Phenylalanine ammonia-lyaseC4H = Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase4CL = CoA-ligaseVST = Resveratrol synthase

Resveratrol

Increasing levels of resveratrol

  • Resveratrol

  • 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene

  • cancer chemopreventive activity

  • Life prolonging in yeast and mice

  • prevention ofcoronary heart disease

  • French paradox


Bio preservation

Bio-preservation

  • Winemaking heavily relies on the judicious use of SO2 to ensure high quality and microbial stability

  • Worldwide reduction in use of chemical preservatives

    • health risks

    • organoleptic changes

    • lower nutritional value

  • Consumer demand for products

    • less heavily preserved

    • less processed

    • higher quality

    • more natural

    • safer

      SHIFT IN RESEARCH TOWARDS BIOLOGICAL PRESERVATIVES


Gmos wine media round table cape town 25 june 2008

No

growth

Leucocin activity against Listeria

Glucose oxidase activity

yeast colonies

YEp352

LCA1

Acetobacter aceti

No

growth

Supernatant

YEp352

LCA1

Gluconobacter oxydans


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Would these yeast strains (ML01 and other GM yeast) be authorised for use if the same character traits had been obtained without the use of GM technology?

  • Is there any scientific evidence to support the fear that unpredicted and unwanted consequences may arise from the use of these strains (product quality / health / environment)?

  • Would these strains provide economic benefits to the wine industry?

  • Would these strains deliver benefits to the consumer?


Gmos wine media round table cape town 25 june 2008

Thank you

…and can WE afford to ignore a technology with such innovation potential?


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