Ap psychology
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AP Psychology. Units 1 & 2. Psychology’s Roots. Prescientific Psychology Is the mind connected to the body or distinct? Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience? . Psychology’s Roots. Prescientific Psychology Empiricism Wilhelm Wundt

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AP Psychology

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Ap psychology

AP Psychology

Units 1 & 2


Psychology s roots

Psychology’s Roots

Prescientific Psychology

  • Is the mind connected to the body or distinct?

  • Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience?


Psychology s roots1

Psychology’s Roots

  • PrescientificPsychology

    • Empiricism

  • Wilhelm Wundt

    • opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig (c. 1879)

  • Structuralism

  • Functionalism


Psychology s roots2

Psychology’s Roots

  • Definition of Psychology

    • The science of behavior and mental processes


Contemporary psychology

Contemporary Psychology

  • Psychology’s Big Issues

    • Nature-nurture controversy

      • the relative contribution that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors


Contemporary psychology1

Contemporary Psychology

  • Natural selection


Contemporary psychology2

Contemporary Psychology

  • Psychology’s Subfields

    • Basic Research

      • biological

      • developmental

      • cognitive

      • personality

      • social


Contemporary psychology3

Contemporary Psychology

  • Psychology’s Subfields

    • Applied Research

      • Industrial/organizational

      • Clinical psychologists

  • Psychiatry

    • A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders


The need for psychological science

The Need for Psychological Science

Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypotheses


The need for psychological science1

The Need for Psychological Science

  • Hindsight Bias

    • the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon

  • Overconfidence

    • we tend to think we know more than we do


The need for psychological science2

The Need for Psychological Science

  • Critical Thinking

    • thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions

The Amazing Randi—Skeptic


The need for psychological science3

The Need for Psychological Science

  • Theory

  • Hypothesis

  • Operational Definition

  • Replication


Description

Description

Psychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation


Description1

Description

Case Study

Is language uniquely human?


Description2

Description

  • Survey

  • False Consensus Effect

  • Population

  • Random Sample


Description3

Description


Description4

Description

  • Naturalistic Observation


Correlation

Correlation

  • Correlation Coefficient

    • a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other

Indicates direction

of relationship

(positive or negative)

Correlation

coefficient

r = +.37

Indicates strength

of relationship

(0.00 to 1.00)


Correlation1

Correlation

  • Scatterplot

    • a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables

Correlation and Scattergram


Correlation2

Perfect positive

correlation (+1.00)

No relationship (0.00)

Perfect negative

correlation (-1.00)

Correlation

Scatterplots, showing patterns of correlations


Experimentation

Experimentation

  • Experiment

  • Double-blind Procedure

  • Placebo effect

  • Experimental Condition

  • Control Condition


Experimentation1

Experimentation

  • Random Assignment

  • Independent Variable

  • Dependent Variable


Statistical reasoning

Statistical Reasoning

  • Mode

    • the most frequently occurring score in a distribution

  • Mean

    • the arithmetic average of a distribution

  • Median

    • the middle score in a distribution


Statistical reasoning1

Statistical Reasoning

  • Range

    • the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

  • Standard Deviation

    • a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean

  • Statistical Significance

    • a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance


Standard deviation and the normal iq curve

Standard Deviation and the Normal IQ Curve


Frequently asked questions about psychology

Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?


Frequently asked questions about psychology1

Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Does behavior depend on one’s culture?

What is culture?


Frequently asked questions about psychology2

Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Does behavior vary with gender?


Frequently asked questions about psychology3

Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Why do psychologists study animals?

Is it ethical to experiment on animals?

Is it ethical to experiment on people?


Frequently asked questions about psychology4

Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Is psychology free of value judgments?


Frequently asked questions about psychology5

Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Is psychology potentially dangerous?


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