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AP Psychology. Units 1 & 2. Psychology’s Roots. Prescientific Psychology Is the mind connected to the body or distinct? Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience? . Psychology’s Roots. Prescientific Psychology Empiricism Wilhelm Wundt

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ap psychology

AP Psychology

Units 1 & 2

psychology s roots
Psychology’s Roots

Prescientific Psychology

  • Is the mind connected to the body or distinct?
  • Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience?
psychology s roots1
Psychology’s Roots
  • PrescientificPsychology
    • Empiricism
  • Wilhelm Wundt
    • opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig (c. 1879)
  • Structuralism
  • Functionalism
psychology s roots2
Psychology’s Roots
  • Definition of Psychology
    • The science of behavior and mental processes
contemporary psychology
Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychology’s Big Issues
    • Nature-nurture controversy
      • the relative contribution that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors
contemporary psychology1
Contemporary Psychology
  • Natural selection
contemporary psychology2
Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychology’s Subfields
    • Basic Research
      • biological
      • developmental
      • cognitive
      • personality
      • social
contemporary psychology3
Contemporary Psychology
  • Psychology’s Subfields
    • Applied Research
      • Industrial/organizational
      • Clinical psychologists
  • Psychiatry
    • A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders
the need for psychological science
The Need for Psychological Science

Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize observations and imply testable hypotheses

the need for psychological science1
The Need for Psychological Science
  • Hindsight Bias
    • the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon
  • Overconfidence
    • we tend to think we know more than we do
the need for psychological science2
The Need for Psychological Science
  • Critical Thinking
    • thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions

The Amazing Randi—Skeptic

the need for psychological science3
The Need for Psychological Science
  • Theory
  • Hypothesis
  • Operational Definition
  • Replication
description
Description

Psychologists describe behavior using case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation

description1
Description

Case Study

Is language uniquely human?

description2
Description
  • Survey
  • False Consensus Effect
  • Population
  • Random Sample
description4
Description
  • Naturalistic Observation
correlation
Correlation
  • Correlation Coefficient
    • a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other

Indicates direction

of relationship

(positive or negative)

Correlation

coefficient

r = +.37

Indicates strength

of relationship

(0.00 to 1.00)

correlation1
Correlation
  • Scatterplot
    • a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables

Correlation and Scattergram

correlation2

Perfect positive

correlation (+1.00)

No relationship (0.00)

Perfect negative

correlation (-1.00)

Correlation

Scatterplots, showing patterns of correlations

experimentation
Experimentation
  • Experiment
  • Double-blind Procedure
  • Placebo effect
  • Experimental Condition
  • Control Condition
experimentation1
Experimentation
  • Random Assignment
  • Independent Variable
  • Dependent Variable
statistical reasoning
Statistical Reasoning
  • Mode
    • the most frequently occurring score in a distribution
  • Mean
    • the arithmetic average of a distribution
  • Median
    • the middle score in a distribution
statistical reasoning1
Statistical Reasoning
  • Range
    • the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
  • Standard Deviation
    • a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean
  • Statistical Significance
    • a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
frequently asked questions about psychology
Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Can laboratory experiments illuminate everyday life?

frequently asked questions about psychology1
Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Does behavior depend on one’s culture?

What is culture?

frequently asked questions about psychology2
Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Does behavior vary with gender?

frequently asked questions about psychology3
Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Why do psychologists study animals?

Is it ethical to experiment on animals?

Is it ethical to experiment on people?

frequently asked questions about psychology4
Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Is psychology free of value judgments?

frequently asked questions about psychology5
Frequently Asked Questions about Psychology

Is psychology potentially dangerous?

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