poliomyelitis
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Poliomyelitis

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 24

Poliomyelitis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 114 Views
  • Uploaded on

Poliomyelitis. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ijeoma Ohadugha 4/1/10 Infectious Diseases. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.immune.org.nz/site_resources/Professionals/Diseases/Polio/Polio.jpg. Poliomyelitis is an infection of the CNS.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Poliomyelitis' - keith-hall


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Ijeoma Ohadugha

4/1/10

Infectious Diseases

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

http://www.immune.org.nz/site_resources/Professionals/Diseases/Polio/Polio.jpg

poliomyelitis is an infection of the cns
Poliomyelitis is an infection of the CNS
  • poliós -Greek word “grey”, + myelós “spinal cord’ + suffix –itis “inflammation =poliomyelitis
    • Viral infection of the nerves of the CNS
poliomyelitis is caused by an enteric rna virus
Poliomyelitis is caused by an enteric RNA virus
  • Caused by an Enterovirus called the poliovirus
  • Enteric, small RNA virus

F.P. Williams, U.S. EPA

transmission by fecal oral route
Transmission by fecal-oral route

http://www.co.washington.or.us/HHS/EnvironmentalHealth/PublicPools/

risk factors
Risk Factors
  • Not being vaccinated in areas where polio is common
  • infants, pregnant women, immunocompromised (eg. HIV)
three basic patterns
Three basic patterns
  • Subclinical infection(95% of infections),
three basic patterns1
Three basic patterns
  • Subclinical infection(95% of infections),
  • Nonparalytic poliomyelitis(1-2%)
three basic patterns2
Three basic patterns
  • Subclinical infection(95% of infections),
  • Nonparalytic poliomyelitis(1-2%)
  • Paralytic poliomyelitis(0.1–0.5%)
  • -result of accidental transfer of virus from GI tissue to neural tissue
  • Spinal polio - 79% of paralytic cases— Bulbospinal polio - 19% of paralytic cases— Bulbar polio - 2% of paralytic cases
polio afflicted everyone socially as well as medically
Polio afflicted everyone socially as well as medically
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • “Once you’ve spent two years trying to wiggle one toe, everything is in proportion.”—Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1945

http://americanhistory.si.edu/polio/howpolio/fdr.htm

heine named polio as a clinical condition lansteiner discovered the virus
Heine named polio as a clinical condition; Lansteiner discovered the virus

Jakob Heine(1840)

Karl Landsteiner (1909)

slide12

poliovirus enters digestive tract via mouth

    • Primary site of infection is epithelial and lymphoid tissue associated with the oropharynx and gut
  • Virus production at this site leads to a transient viremia, following which the virus may infect the CNS

http://cmbi.bjmu.edu.cn/www-learn/micro-ac-uk/335/Picornaviruses.html

dual tropism thought to be the cause of poliomyelitis from poliovirus
Dual Tropism Thought to be the Cause of Poliomyelitis from Poliovirus
  • Reflects the distribution of the poliovirus receptor CD155 on cells lymphoid cells as well as the epithelial cells in the gut and on neurons in the CNS
  • Viral Tropism relies on host cell permissiveness and receptor susceptibility
virus replicates through viropexis
Virus Replicates Through Viropexis
  • attachment of the virus to specific cellular receptors of cells with CD155
  • penetration and uncoating of the virus is energy dependent, and occurs by receptor-mediated endocytosis (viropexis)
interferons may prevent susceptibility of most cells with cd155
Interferons May Prevent Susceptibility of Most Cells with CD155
  • CD155 is present on most human cells, so does not explain why it infects certain tissues
  • Recent studies-suggest human type I interferon receptors possibly prevent
  • Interferon- protein released by lymphocyte in response to pathogen to trigger immune defenses
only ipv used in us today
Only IPV used in US today
  • OPV known to in rare cases become virulent and cause iatrogenic (vaccine-induced) polio
  • Both used today in the world
  • IN US, only IPV used since 1990s from policy changes
    • Only cases of polio (8-10 per year) were from people with vaccine-induced polio
jonas salk injected poliovirus vaccine ipv albert sabin oral live attenuated virus opv
Jonas Salk- Injected Poliovirus Vaccine(IPV) Albert Sabin – oral live attenuated virus (OPV)

1952

1957

sv40 contamination concerns
SV40 Contamination Concerns
  • In 1960, SV40 (Simian Vius-40) found in vaccine from rhesus monkey kidney cells used to prepare vaccine
vaccines with sv40 contamination was accused as cause for hiv
Vaccines with SV40 contamination was accused as cause for HIV
  • Accusations in 1990s that vaccines with SV40 caused conditions favorable for SIV jump from monkey to humans, causing HIV/AIDS
accusation now debunked but stigma lingers for new reasons
Accusation now debunked, but stigma lingers for new reasons
  • New reasons for vaccination stigma such as rumors of sterility in some areas
treatment in the past often ineffective until elizabeth kenny s procedures
Treatment in the past often ineffective until Elizabeth Kenny’s procedures
  • crutches or wheelchair for motor muscle degeneration
  • “convalescent serum”-1920s
  • iron lung for respiratory failure
  • early 1940s- Sister Elizabeth Kenny’s procedures- hotpacks and heating pads w/massages, still used today
present treatments offer relief to symptoms
Present Treatments Offer Relief to Symptoms
  • No current cure
  • Respiratory apparatus
  • Antibiotics for UTIs, medication for urine retention
  • Heating pads and towels for muscle spasms & pain
  • Physical therapy, braces, or orthopedic surgery for recovery of muscle strength/function
what still needs to be done
What still needs to be done
  • Eradication efforts
    • Get rid of stigma surrounding vaccine in Africa and other polio-afflicted places
    • Develop new targets for polio cure
references
References
  • http://www.polioeradication.org/
  • https://health.google.com/health/ref/Poliomyelitis
  • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/polio/DS00572/DSECTION=risk-factors
  • http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/poliotimeline.htm
  • http://www.vaccineinformation.org/polio/qandavax.as
ad