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Phosphorus Removal. The most common method to remove phosphorus from a waste stream is chemical precipitation. The common precipitating cations are Ca, Al and Fe. Calcium. Calcium is usually added as lime (Ca(OH) 2 ). The reaction is represented as:.

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Phosphorus Removal

The most common method to remove phosphorus from a waste stream is chemical precipitation. The common precipitating cations are Ca, Al and Fe

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Calcium

Calcium is usually added as lime (Ca(OH)2). The reaction is represented as:

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Lime dosage is primarily a function of system alkalinity. The key parameter here is pH. The pH has to be elevated to somewhere between 10.5 and 11to get effective P removal. As an approximation lime dose to attain this pH is about 1.5 times the alkalinity represented in mg/L as CaCO3

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Lime addition is seldom practiced in the US because it produces large amount of sludge and because the pH usually has to be readjusted typically by recarbonation.

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Al and Fe

Precipitation of P by Al and Fe is more direct:

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% P reduction Al dosage

(mol Al:mol P)

____________ ____________

75 1.4:1

85 1.7:1

95 2.3:1

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In most cases jar tests or pilot plant studies are used to fine tune the dosages.

There are a variety of chemical application points in the treatment scheme. In some cases the chemical precipitation process is incorporated into a biological treatment process. Some alternative treatment schemes are shown below.

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