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Addressing the innovation gap: strategies to inform treatment policies in low and middle income countries. Shanthi Pal, WHO, Switzerland Sten Olsson, Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden. WHO Global Programme for Safety Monitoring of Medicinal Products . World Health Assembly Resolution 16.36

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Addressing the innovation gap strategies to inform treatment policies in low and middle income countries

Addressing the innovation gap: strategies to inform treatment policies in low and middle income countries

Shanthi Pal, WHO, Switzerland

Sten Olsson, Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden


Who global programme for safety monitoring of medicinal products

WHO Global Programme for Safety Monitoring of Medicinal Products

World Health Assembly Resolution 16.36

INVITES Member States to arrange for a systematic collection of information on serious adverse drug reactions observed during the development of a drug and, in particular, after its release for general use.


The full scope of pharmacovigilance pv

The full scope of pharmacovigilance (PV)

  • The science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effectsor any other drug-related problems.

    (The Importance of Pharmacovigilance, WHO 2002)

  • By investing in PV, countries will benefit multifold:

    • Benefit harm assessment of medicines

    • Track SSFFC

    • Track irrational use

    • Track medication errors


Challenges to pv in low and middle income countries lmic

Challenges to PV in low and middle income countries (LMIC)

WHO survey of PV systems in 55 countries

  • Lack of political support

  • Lack of resources

  • Lack of competence

  • Lack of PV systems and/

    or inadequate function

  • Lack of communication and information exchange

Capacity to detect significant

vaccine safety issue

Europe

North America


Why is this a problem

Why is this a problem?

  • More than 300 products in the pipeline for neglected diseases, HIV AIDS, TB and malaria

  • At least half of them will be launched in the coming years in those very settings where there is little or no capacity for post approval monitoring

Developer Analysis, BVGH, 2012


Global tb drug pipeline

Global TB Drug Pipeline

Discovery1

Preclinical Development

Clinical Development

Diarylquinoline

DprE Inhibitors

GyrB inhibitors

InhAInhibitors

LeuRSInhibitors

MGyrX1 inhibitors

Mycobacterial Gyrase

Inhibitors

Pyrazinamide Analogs

Riminophenazines

Ruthenium (II) complexes

Spectinamides

Translocase-1 Inhibitors

BTZ043

TBA-354

CPZEN-45

DC-159a

Q201

SQ609

SQ641

AZD5847

Bedaquiline (TMC-207)

Linezolid

Novel Regimens2

PA-824

Rifapentine

SQ-109

Sutezolid(PNU-100480)

Delamanid (OPC-67683)

Gatifloxacin

Moxifloxacin

Rifapentine

4 Repurposed Drugs

6 New Drugs

3 New Classes

Drugs currently in the regulatory review process

www.newtbdrugs.org

Updated: June 18, 2012


Who solutions first build pv systems

WHO Solutions: First build PV systems


Innovative solutions to support those systems

Innovative solutions to support those systems

Network of WHO Collaborating Centres (CC) to support PV systems in countries

  • Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden

  • WHO CC Accra, Ghana

  • WHO CC Rabat, Morocco

  • WHO CC Oslo, Norway

  • WHO CC Netherlands (Lareb)

PV consultants in Africa, for Africa


Create a consortium

Create a consortium

plus 9 other partners


Dedicated resources

Dedicated resources


Innovative intuitive software for data management and information exchange

Innovative/ intuitive software for data management and information exchange

  • ICH standards in ICH region and individual countries

  • Lack of harmonization in other regions

  • Data collected in LMIC not compatible with ICH standards

  • Timely and accurate global exchange of PV information difficult

  • Difficult to compare data across ICH and non ICH regions

  • Vigiflow, E2b compatible data management tool

  • WHO Solution for implementing ICH standards in non-ICH countries

  • Both a reporting tool as well as a national database

  • Can also support diverse MAH in LMIC


Vigiflow user countries in the world

Vigiflow user countries in the world

  • for receiving and storing ADR reports.

  • The entered reports can be extracted as XML files

  • can be transferred to other (E2b)databases

  • A search and statistics module is built into the system

  • Easy to use and error-checking ensures accuracy.


Results of this innovative approach

Results of this innovative approach

  • LMIC are able to collect reports in standard format compatible with developed countries

  • Information exchange between LMIC and global database now possible

  • The software update and management occurs centrally, at Uppsala, Sweden

  • Countries do not need to bother with self update of their tools

  • Countries now have their own nationla database as well.


Impact of innovation

Impact of innovation

  • Data from Africa pooled

  • Part of global repository of ADRs

  • Contribute to data mining

  • First signal based on quality data of international standards

    • Amodiaquine-artesunate antimalarial medicine

    • Signal of Extrapyramidal symptoms from African PV data

    • Led to product information update by company


Innovations for broader use of pv data

Innovations for broader use of PV data

  • SSFFC: Substandard, Spurious, Falsified, Falsely-labelled and Counterfeit medicinal products (‘SSFFC’)

  • Serious threat to patient safety and health systems globally

  • Global threat, but LMIC particularly vulnerable

  • Impact on medicines procured through global health initiatives


A novel algorithm

A novel algorithm

  • To detect clusters of reports within the WHO Individual Case Safety Reports database - VigiBase™

    • for lack of effect

    • based on geographic and temporal patterns

    • may reflect cases of SSFFC medicinal products

  • To be tested in national databases

    • For prospective detection of SSFFC


Innovations to detect medication errors

Innovations to detect medication errors

Reports of medication errors in WHO ICSR database

PV system that :

Records errors

Analyses

Learns

Implements checks

Prevents errors


Innovations to bring in additional stakeholders

Innovations to bring in additional stakeholders

  • Patients as partners in pharmacovigilance

    • Faster identification of new medicine safety problems

    • Better understanding of impact of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) on life

    • More details of ADRs…

    • The full picture

  • Need simple systems, to support reporting by patients


The adr reporting tool for patients

The ADR reporting tool for patients

  • Developed by WHO and its partner, the UMC

  • Complies with international standards (E2b format data entry)

  • Language, style sheets, logos can be adapted to local preferences

  • Can easily feed into the national database / PV centre


Www who int medicines areas quality safety safety efficacy en index html pvsupport@who int

www.who.int/medicines/areas/quality_safety/safety_efficacy/en/ind[email protected]

  • Putting ideas to practice,

    in LMIC


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