Mohism
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Mohism. Mohism. Founded by Mòzǐ ( 墨子 ) 470–391 Teachings in the book Mozi (chapters 8-39) Concerned with saving society Rejects appeal to past Rejects partiality. Mohism. Ten principles: 1. Exalting the worthy2. Exalting Unity 3. Universal Love4. Against War

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Mohism

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Mohism

Mohism


Mohism1

Mohism

  • Founded by Mòzǐ (墨子) 470–391

    • Teachings in the book Mozi (chapters 8-39)

    • Concerned with saving society

      • Rejects appeal to past

      • Rejects partiality


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Mohism

  • Ten principles:

    • 1. Exalting the worthy2. Exalting Unity

    • 3. Universal Love4. Against War

    • 5. Economy in spending6. Economy in funerals

    • 7. Heaven’s Will8. On Spirits

    • 9. Against Music10. Against Fatalism


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Mohism

  • Three ‘metaprinciples’:

    • It agrees with what the Sage Emperors did

    • It agrees with common seeing and hearing

    • It would benefit the common people


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Mohism

  • A principle by which to judge all principles:

    Does it benefit the country and the people

    • Indicates a kind of consequentialism

    • ‘Benefits’ (利, lì) are simple material goods

      • Makes the ideal state a bit dull


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Mohism

  • Universal Love (兼愛, jian ai)

    • ‘Impartial Concern’

    • Passes the Benefit Test, unlike the partial concern of the Confucians


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Mohism

  • Universal Love (兼愛, jian ai)

    When we come to think about the cause of all these calamities, how have they arisen? Have they arisen out of love of others and benefiting others? Of course we should say no. We should say they have arisen out of hate of others and injuring others. If we should classify one by one all those who hate others and injure others, should we find them to be universal in love or partial? Of course we should say they are partial. Now, since partiality against one another is the cause of the major calamities in the empire, then partiality is wrong.

    Mz 16.1 (‘Universal Love III’)


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Mohism

  • The Will of Heaven

    • Why pursue good of others?

    • Because Heaven wills it

      • Heaven will reward and punish accordingly

    • Did Mozi really believe in Heaven?

      • Probably yes.

      • The alternative: there is no Heaven but others should believe in Heaven because the belief is good for society


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Mohism

  • The Absolutist State

    • People have many interests, which may conflict

      Mozi said: In the beginning of human life, when there was yet no law and government, the custom was "everybody according to his own idea." … and so arose mutual disapproval among men. … The disorder in the (human) world could be compared to that among birds and beasts.

      Mz 11.1


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Mohism

  • The Absolutist State

    • People have many interests, which may conflict

    • A single ruler is needed to stop this disorder

      Yet all this disorder was due to the want of a ruler. Therefore (Heaven) chose the virtuous in the world and crowned him emperor.

      Mz 11.2


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