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Enhancing Oral and Literate Skills for At-Risk ELL Children. March 16, 2012 California Speech-Language-Hearing Association San Jose, California. Presenters. Celeste Roseberry-McKibbin, Ph.D. CCC-SLP Professor, Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology

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Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

Enhancing Oral and Literate Skills for At-Risk ELL Children

March 16, 2012

California Speech-Language-Hearing Association

San Jose, California


Presenters
Presenters

Celeste Roseberry-McKibbin, Ph.D. CCC-SLP

Professor, Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology

California State University, Sacramento

LSHS, San Juan Unified School District

Robert A. Pieretti, Ph.D., CCC-SLP

Assistant Professor, Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology

California State University, Sacramento

LSHS, Sacramento City Unified School District


Presenters1
Presenters

Ploua Vue. B.S.

Graduate Student, Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology

California State University, Sacramento

Mary Martineau. B.S.

Graduate Student, Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology

California State University, Sacramento


Full presentation available
Full presentation available:

  • www.hhs.csus.edu/homepages/SPA/Roseberry

  • Click on Workshops

  • Follow the link to this handout


Workshop objectives participants will
Workshop Objectives; participants will:

1. Discuss laws impacting service delivery

2. Describe the impact of ELL status on students with LLD (language learning disabilities)

3. Describe general intervention strategies that can be used to increase language skills across settings

4. Discuss how to tie therapy into the general education curriculum


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

5. Identify practical strategies for increasing the oral and literate language skills of preschool and early elementary school students

6. Summarize ideas for helping increase family involvement

7. Define and discuss Response to Intervention


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

I. INTRODUCTION and literate language skills of preschool and early elementary school students

At the first author’s previous school, we had a great deal of diversity; 91% of our students were students of color; 9% were White. Many came from welfare homes. The school has 900-1000 students.


In elk grove unified school district as a whole
In Elk Grove Unified School District as a whole… and literate language skills of preschool and early elementary school students

  • Children represent between 80-90 different language groups

  • They come from all over the world.

  • Sacramento, California and New York have the largest numbers of immigrants from the former USSR in the entire United States


Thus it is the overall goal of this workshop to present ideas and strategies that are
Thus, it is the overall goal of this workshop to present ideas and strategies that are:

  • widely applicable to ELL students from a variety of cultural and linguistic backgrounds in both Special Education and RtI settings

  • useable by monolingual English-speaking clinicians as well as bilingual clinicians, and

  • easy, inexpensive, and fun to implement!


As much as possible the ideas presented will be
As much as possible, the ideas presented will be: ideas and strategies that are:

  • Practical for use on “Monday morning”

  • Useful for tying in with the general curriculum of the school

  • Representative of evidence-based practice


The ideas presented will be applicable to a range of settings including
The ideas presented will be applicable to a range of settings, including:

  • Speech-language therapy pull-out rooms

  • Self-contained special education classrooms

  • General education classrooms


The ideas can be used with
The ideas can be used with… settings, including:

  • Young ELLs who are at risk for a diagnosis of LLD

  • Young ELLs who already have IEPs because they have been diagnosed with a LLD


You are encouraged to
You are encouraged to: settings, including:

  • Share these ideas with general education teachers as much as possible

  • Help general education teachers to understand that the more they help us implement the ideas presented, the faster our students will progress!


Ii language learning disabilities in ell students
II. LANGUAGE-LEARNING DISABILITIES IN ELL STUDENTS settings, including:

Legal Considerations

  • The IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2004) states that students who speak a second language must be assessed in both the primary (first) language and English

  • These students must show delays in BOTH the primary language and English in order to be diagnosed as having LLD (language-learning disability).

  • An ELL student has a true LLD if he experiences difficulties learning in BOTH languages

  • A LLD affects the student’s ability to learn any language


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

  • The student with age-appropriate L1 skills and low scores in English is NOT LLD and is not a candidate for special education (Roseberry-McKibbin, 2008; Kohnert, 2008).

  • We must make teachers and administrators aware of the difference between a student with normal underlying language learning ability who needs more time and exposure to English (non special education) and the student who is truly LLD (qualifies for special education).


There is increased focus on diverse students in our schools
There is increased focus on diverse students in our schools…

  • English language learners now represent 9.6% of all students enrolled in public pre-kindergarten through grade 12 classes in the U.S.; 67% of these students are enrolled at the elementary school level

  • The No Child Left Behind Act (2001) has put strong emphasis on achievement for low-income, diverse, and English language learner students


Silliman wilkinson brea spahn 2004 stated that
Silliman, Wilkinson, & Brea- schools…Spahn, (2004) stated that:

  • The sharp increase in enrollment in American public schools coexists with a crisis of illiteracy in America, which is particularly regrettable given the changed sociodemographic characteristics of American classrooms.

  • A growing achievement gap exists among minority and nonminority students, those from poorer versus richer families, those whose native language is English, in contrast to those whose first language is not English, and those identified for special services versus those in regular education


No child left behind
No Child Left Behind… schools…

  • Addresses inequities in several ways

  • Students with disabilities must participate in state accountability systems for reading and math in grades 3-8

  • Accommodations are allowed for these students as necessary

  • Schools must show adequate annual progress toward all students being proficient in math and reading, or the school will face penalties.


Individuals with disabilities education act idea 2004
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004): schools…

  • LEAs (local education agencies) are allowed to eliminate the IQ-achievement discrepancy gap that formerly was mandated in order to qualify students for many special education services

  • There is a greater emphasis on pre-referral services

  • Schools may now use more funds for early intervention


There is a special focus
There is a special focus… schools…

  • On children in kindergarten through 3rd grade who don’t technically qualify for special education but who need additional support.

  • This includes ELL students

    There is also a special focus on children who are having difficulty developing their basic reading skills, especially in the early grades.


Response to intervention an opportunity
Response to Intervention-An Opportunity? schools…

  • Under IDEA, federal funds can be allocated for early intervening services to provide academic assistance from special educators to students at risk for academic failure

  • Students who demonstrate improvement need different instruction, not special education….


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children


Now more schools across the u s are implementing rti
Now more schools across the U.S. are implementing RTI are placed in undifferentiated remediation programs with native English speakers who have scored poorly on standardized reading tests (Harper et al., 2008

Regular education classroom (Tier 1)

Noncategorical, nonspecial education interventions (after-school math and/or reading academy; REWARDS reading program, etc.) (Tier 2)

Special education with IEP (Tier 3)


Diehl silliman 2009 language and communication disorders in children
Diehl & Silliman, 2009; are placed in undifferentiated remediation programs with native English speakers who have scored poorly on standardized reading tests (Harper et al., 2008Language and Communication Disorders in Children)

  • RtI is a method of service delivery that tries to “catch” kids before they end up needing special education

  • There is especially an emphasis on reading intervention in the early grades

  • Great because it takes us away from a “wait to fail” system and instead has a “supporting success” orientation

  • Goal: PREVENT problems later


It is easy to be afraid that being involved in rti will create more work for us
It is easy to be afraid that being involved in RtI will create more work for us!

  • But ultimately, it will make our jobs easier because fewer children will be on IEPs

  • More students will receive support BEFORE we are asked to formally evaluate them for special education



Some places in virginia and california
Some places in Virginia and California… their futures…

  • Build prison cells according to the number of 3rd graders who do not read at grade level

  • For example, in 2012, if 500 third graders do not read well, 500 prison cells are made available to house these children 10-15 years later


As slps we can collaborate in the schools to emphasize
As SLPs, we can collaborate in the schools to emphasize their futures…

  • Justice and equal opportunities for everyone, regardless of race, SES, or primary language

  • Leveling the playing field



Blevins 2011 csha
Blevins 2011 CSHA: their futures…

  • In Santa Ana Unified, they had so many preschool referrals that it would have cost $2 million to hire SLPs to test and treat the kids

  • Many were ELL—mostly Spanish-speaking

  • She created a preschool RtI program


At risk preschoolers were seen by slpas for 6 weeks
their futures… At risk” preschoolers were seen by SLPAs for 6 weeks

  • They received language intervention

  • At the end of the 6 weeks, 95% of the children were fine

  • Only about 5% needed IEPs


Gillam 2011 csha
Gillam 2011 CSHA their futures…

  • We are WAAAAY overidentifying ELL kindergarteners for IEPs

  • Assessed Spanish-speaking Ks at beginning and end of K (English and Spanish)

  • Of 167 “at risk” at beginning of K, only 21 really needed IEPs at end of K


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children
Thus…. their futures…

  • It behooves us to work with young (preschool and kindergarten) ELLs to ensure that they experience as much success as possible


A increasing oral language skills in preschool ell children with lld
A. Increasing Oral Language Skills in Preschool ELL Children with LLD

  • Research shows that even children as young as 3 years of age reject peers whom they perceive as “different” (Rice, Sell, & Hadley, 1991; Tabors, 2008; Weiss, 2002).

  • Thus, a major goal for ELL preschoolers with LLD is to successfully interact socially with their peers.


With ell preschool children who are lld
With ELL preschool children who are LLD… with LLD

  • It is crucial to increase their ability to interact verbally with peers.

  • We have said that ideally, these children will receive intervention in L1. However, the reality is that many of them are in daycare or preschool settings where only English is spoken.


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children


How do we help ell preschoolers with lld succeed in preschool daycare settings
How do we help ELL preschoolers with LLD succeed in preschool/daycare settings?

  • First, professionals such as SLPs, teachers, and childcare workers cannot just assume that these preschool children will automatically engage in interactions with their typically-developing peers.

    Research has shown that these children need the adults around them to facilitate language interaction opportunities with peers.


Specific suggestions
Specific Suggestions preschool/daycare settings?

  • When an ELL LLD child asks an adult for something, the adult can redirect the child to a typically-developing peer in the classroom. The adult can teach the child specific strategies for interacting with the peer.

  • For example, if a Ryan, a Mandarin-speaking child comes and tugs on an adult’s arm and points to the bathroom, the teacher could say “Ryan, go ask your friend Mark to go to the bathroom with you. Walk up to him and say ‘Mark, bathroom please’ and take his hand.”

    • In this way, Ryan would be encouraged to interact with a peer and also learn an effective strategy for gaining a peer’s attention.


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

Tabors (2008) coordinated the Harvard Language Diversity Project, a research activity of the New England Quality Research Center on Head Start

  • Tabors’ research yielded some excellent, practical, evidence-based strategies for providing additional support to ELL preschool children.


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

  • Tabors, P.O. (2008). Project, a research activity of the New England Quality Research Center on Head StartOne child, two languages: A guide for childhood educators of children learning English as a second language (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing

  • www.brookespublishing.com


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

  • Tabors recommended that teachers give children some immediate, routine phrases to use to initiate conversation with peers.

  • If an ELL child with LLD can be taught such words/phrases as “Hi” “How’s it going?” “Can I play?,” they immediately open themselves up to more language exposure and interaction with other children.


Another practical strategy
Another practical strategy: immediate, routine phrases to use to initiate conversation with peers.

  • Professionals can ask parents of ELL LLD children to teach them a few key words in the children’s home language.

  • The research of Tabors and her colleagues showed that it was extremely helpful during the first few weeks of preschool if the adults could say words like bathroom, eat, listen in the children’s first languages.

  • This gave the children a sense of connection with the teachers and helped them learn preschool routines faster.


Tabors and her harvard colleagues also recommended that
Tabors and her Harvard colleagues also recommended that: immediate, routine phrases to use to initiate conversation with peers.

  • Adults give the preschoolers a great deal of verbal “space” for the first few weeks.

  • In the Harvard project, the teachers welcomed the children and smiled at them, but they did not overwhelm them by issuing directives (unless necessary) or calling on them too much during the first few weeks.


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

  • When the teachers did eventually begin addressing the children directly, they “doubled the message” by accompanying their words with a gesture, action, or directed gaze.

    • This redundance enhanced the children’s comprehension of what the teachers were saying, and increased the children’s confidence.


One of the most helpful things for the preschool children
One of the most helpful things for the preschool children….

  • Was the establishment of a consistent set of routines that were simple and used daily. For example, things like snack time, outside play, cleanup time, and circle time allowed the ELL preschoolers to immediately act like members of the group.


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children
Another successful strategy that helped the l ELL preschoolers fit into the group faster and socialize more:

  • Teachers always structured small group activities to include a mix of ELL and monolingual English-speaking children.

  • This was very helpful to the ELL children because they did not have to negotiate entry into the groups; they were automatically included.


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children


B increasing literacy skills
B. Increasing Literacy Skills more exposure to English and more opportunities to interact with other children.

  • Reading, writing, spelling

  • Phonological awareness

  • Oral language

    • Foundation is environmental experiences and exposure


Begin with phonological awareness
Begin with phonological awareness: more exposure to English and more opportunities to interact with other children.

  • Phonological awareness is the ability to consciously reflect on and manipulate the sound system of a language.

  • It is foundational to success in reading, writing, and spelling (Justice, 2010; Ukrainetz et al., 2009).

  • Preschoolers who are ELL and have LLD especially need to develop phonological awareness skills (Brice & Brice, 2009; Roseberry-McKibbin, 2007).


The research of ukrainetz et al 2009 showed that
The research of Ukrainetz et al (2009) showed that: more exposure to English and more opportunities to interact with other children.

  • ELL kindergarteners (including those from low-SES Hispanic homes) who were exposed to phonological awareness activities over the course of a year made good progress in reading

  • The children with moderate deficits benefited more than the children with mild deficits


Interestingly
Interestingly… more exposure to English and more opportunities to interact with other children.

  • Even when treatment was provided in short, intensive periods (as opposed to longer, more drawn out less intense periods), the children made gains

  • These gains were maintained over time


Use the following hierarchy
Use the following hierarchy: more exposure to English and more opportunities to interact with other children.

  • 1. Count the # of words in a sentence

  • 2. Count the number of syllables in a word

  • 3. Count the number of sounds in a word

  • 4. Identify rhyming words

  • 5. Use sound blending skills (e.g., “What word is this? S-u-n”

  • 6. Identify the first sound in a word

  • 7. Identify the last sound in a word


Other ideas include
Other ideas include: more exposure to English and more opportunities to interact with other children.

  • Use rhythm sticks and clapping to facilitate knowledge of how many syllables there are in a given word. Students can clap out the syllables or use rhythm sticks to tap or shake for each syllable.

  • Use a grab bag where students pull an object/toy out of the bag and tell the beginning or ending sound in the word.

    • Use rhymes such as Dr. Seuss. Many ELL preschoolers with LLD have underdeveloped rhyming skills.


We can also
We can also: more exposure to English and more opportunities to interact with other children.

  • Use stories with Rebus-style pictures and ask students to “read” the pictures

  • Read a familiar story or poem and have students fill in missing words


If books are read many times
If books are read many times….. more exposure to English and more opportunities to interact with other children.

  • Children obtain more vocabulary and information each time they read the story.

  • When they are familiar with a story, they can be encouraged to “read” it to peers and family members. This increases their confidence with reading.


Professionals can use books that
Professionals can use books that: more exposure to English and more opportunities to interact with other children.

  • Have highly exciting or dramatic story themes

  • Have manipulative parts like flaps and movable tabs to engage children.

  • Have buttons to press that make noises (e.g., a choo-choo noise for a train) or play music.

  • Have many colorful pictures that accompany the words. Often, children who have limited exposure to books will become disinterested in books that have many words on each page.



Written language attainments preschool period
Written Language Attainments: read, read!Preschool Period

  • We need to be sure that before they enter kindergarten, our preschool students can:

  • 1. Display interest in reading & sharing books

    • 2. Hold a book right side up


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

  • 7. Identify titles of favorite books read, read!

  • 8. Distinguish between pictures and print on a page

  • 9. Know where the story begins in the book

  • 10. Identify letters that occur in their own names

  • 11. Print the first letter of their name

  • 12. Recite the first 10 letters of the alphabet


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

  • 13. Point to the first letter in a word read, read!14. Differentiate uppercase from lowercase letters15. Use terms such as letter, word, alphabet

  • 16. Point to words individually as they are read

  • 17. Respond to signs in the classroom

  • 18. Recognize common environmental signs (e.g., stop sign)


If preschool students receive comprehensive support in oral and written language skills
If preschool students receive comprehensive support in oral and written language skills….

  • They will be far more successful in elementary school and beyond.


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

IV. Intervention and Instructional Strategies for Pull-Out and Push-In Therapy in General Education Settings

d


How did i get here
HOW DID I GET HERE? and Push-In Therapy in General Education Settings

  • An interest in children with early oral language difficulties that become later reading and writing difficulties…….

  • An interest in promoting early detection and remediation

  • This began during my graduate and undergraduate training program…………..


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

Dr. Goldsworthy and Sacramento State Students have set the tone for literacy intervention at the Maryjane Rees Language, Speech, and Hearing Center

  • CHILDREN’S LITERATURE (Context)

    LINKED TO

  • ORAL NARRATIVE ACTIVITIES (Oral Language)

    LINKED TO

  • SOURCEBOOK OF PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS SERIES (Phonological Awareness)

    LINKED TO

  • Modified RAVE-O activities: Language activities designed to promote RETRIEVAL, AUTOMATICITY, VOCABULARY, ELABORATION, AND ORTHOGRAPHY ACTIVITIES (Orthographic Awareness, Morphological Awareness, Language/Literacy)


How did i get here1
HOW DID I GET HERE? tone for literacy intervention at the

  • My work in the Public Schools….which led to several interests, including:

  • Multilingual students (Difference vs. Disorder, but suggestions to team?)

  • Response to Intervention (RTI) programs: Which students need Special Education and which students need more intense instruction?????




Which left me with many questions
Which left me with many Questions!?!?!?!?!?!?

...............All of which led to the research agenda we will review today!


My primary topics for today
MY PRIMARY TOPICS FOR TODAY………..

  • Revisit links between oral language and literacy

  • Discuss the challenges faced by English Language Learners (ELLs) “at risk” for academic failure in early elementary school

  • Review current research agenda designed to examine benefits of an intervention designed to meet the needs of these students

  • Discuss potential roles and provide practical suggestions for the SLP working with ELL populations


Special ed who are these kids
SPECIAL ED: WHO ARE THESE KIDS?

  • WHERE DO THEY COME FROM?

  • WHERE DO THEY GO?


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

Remember, early success in school is closely linked to success in the language arts—specifically reading and reading comprehensionKids who don’t achieve traditionally get referred to Special Ed…

  • What about English Language Learners?

  • Traditionally, ELLs have been overrepresented by those same two words: SPECIAL ED!


Research completed in california
Research completed in California success in the language arts—specifically reading and reading comprehension

  • Artiles, Rueda, Salazar, & Higareda, 2005:

    ELLs with limited proficiency in both their native language and in English are disproportionately included in Special Education programs in both the elementary and secondary grades…..

    Does this necessarily indicate a language disorder? Consider subtractive bilingualism…..


The situation in california
The Situation in California success in the language arts—specifically reading and reading comprehension

  • Federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), which introduced stringent accountability measures to ensure federal education funding

  • Standards based education and assessment

  • California chooses to test in English only

  • Proposition 227 lead to English language mainstream classrooms for most ELLs

  • The number of languages represented in public schools


The situation in california cont d
The Situation in California (Cont’d) success in the language arts—specifically reading and reading comprehension

Many feel this Inclusion leads to marginalization

School curriculums adoptions:

  • Assume phonics-based reading instruction

  • Assume an English oral language foundation

  • Assume access to familiar vocabulary in English

  • Do not include modifications “to help ELLs develop oral language in English, to build on students’ literacy skills in their native language, or to acknowledge differences in cultural experiences and identity development” (Harper et al, 2008, p. 274)


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children
Shaywitz (2004): Essential, scientifically-proven elements of reading programs for children at-risk for reading difficulties

  • Systematic and direct instruction in phonemic awareness

  • Systematic and direct instruction in phonics

  • Practice applying phonics in reading and writing

  • Fluency training

  • Enriched language experiences


How about effective english literacy instruction for ells
How about effective English literacy instruction for ELLs? of reading programs for children at-risk for reading difficulties

Research confirms the need for:

  • Systematic and explicit phonologically based intervention (Lovett et al.,2008)

  • Oral language development (August, Carlo, Dressler, & Snow, 2005; Gersten & Geva, 2003; Harper et al., 2008; Pollard-Durodola et al., 2006)

  • Extensive vocabulary development, reading comprehension, attention to sentence forms, and discourse structure (Gersten & Geva, 2003)

  • Cultural relevance (Pollard-Durodola et al., 2006)


Research also confirms rti for ells in early elementary school
Research Also Confirms RTI for ELLS in Early Elementary School

  • Linan-Thompson et al. study (2003):26 ELLs. Grade 2. 58,35-minute sessions. Small groups over 3 months. Significant gains on measures of word attack, passage comprehension, phoneme segmentation fluency, and oral reading fluency.

  • Vaughn et. al study (2006):

    41 Spanish speaking ELLs. Grade 2. 50-minute sessions, 5 days per week. Added element: guided story retelling with complete sentences and content-specific vocabulary. Significant gains: PA, RAN, letter knowledge, word attack, passage comprehension, and spelling dictation.


Ells and curriculum selections a mismatch
ELLs and Curriculum Selections: A Mismatch School

  • “Reading is an active process in which readers use their background knowledge, the situational context, and the cues provided by an author to construct an interpretation of the meaning of a text” (Pritchard, 1990)

    BUT

  • School curriculum does not always provide culturally familiar materials.


Research needs
Research Needs School

  • What is the value of each intervention component? What helps the most?

    (Vaughn et. al., 2006)

  • What about ELLs from language groups other than Spanish? What about shorter, less intensive interventions? (Linan-Thompson et al., 2006, 7 month study)


Research needs1
Research Needs School

  • Links between L2 development and the curriculum: Promotion of academic language development (Saunders & O’Brien, 2006)


The hmong a population of interest
The Hmong: A population of Interest School

  • One of fastest growing California populations

  • Largest concentrations in California, Minnesota, and Wisconsin (Kan & Kohnert, 2005)

  • 36,000 Hmong American students in California K-12 (Vang, 2004-5). Of these, 85% classified as Limited English Proficient (LEP)


The hmong a population of interest1
The Hmong: A population of Interest School

  • Fifth largest group of ELLs in California schools (CDE, 2009)

  • In Sacramento county, second largest group of ELLs behind Spanish speakers (CDE, 2009)


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children


Hmong and academic english a mismatch
Hmong and Academic English: A Mismatch? School

  • Phonology: Unlike English, one morpheme=one syllable. Language with 8 inflectional tones. Few glides. Many more stops. Includes post-velar and uvular sounds.

  • Semantics: Unlike English, Hmong uses classifiers to indicate a semantic class to which something belongs:

    ib tug cwjmem

    ib (quantifier--“a” or “one”) tug (classifier--long-thin object) cwjmem(noun--pencil)


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

  • Morphology: School

    English: Uses a final sound: “house” + “s”

    Hmong: ob lustsev

    Hmong uses a quantifier: ob(quantifier-two) lus(classifier—something big) tsev(house)

    Sources: Kan & Kohnert, 2005; Rubba 2006; Kan 2010


Hmong and academic english a mismatch1
Hmong and Academic English: A Mismatch? School

  • Syntax/Grammar

  • Hmong is Subject-Verb-Object, but unlike English, the word order changes to emphasize certain parts of utterances.

  • English:‘He/She cut a piece of paper.’

  • Hmong:Nwstxiavibdaimntawv.

  • Translation:He/She cut one (classifier) paper.

  • English:‘I cut that piece of paper.’

  • Hmong:Daimntawvkoyogkuvtxiavhov.

  • Translation:(Classifier) paper there is I cut, really.

    Sources: Kan & Kohnert, 2005; Rubba 2006; Kan 2010


Most noteworthy narrative differences
Most Noteworthy: Narrative Differences! School

Hmong: Historic emphasis on oral skills; Long, highly-detailed, loosely-connected narratives:

Fadiman (1997): Hmong phrase-haiscuaj los kaum los, meaning “to speak of all things.” The phrase itself is sometimes used at the beginning of Hmong oral narratives to remind listeners that the world is full of things that, even though it may not seem so, are actually connected, that no event occurs in isolation, that you can miss a great deal by sticking to the point, and “that the storyteller is likely to be long-winded” (p. 13).


Fish soup passage
Fish Soup Passage School

Read the anecdote on your handout (Fadiman 1997). How does this oral report differ from the academic language expectations of the classroom in U.S. schools today…..consider early elementary school.


Most noteworthy narrative differences1
Most Noteworthy: Narrative Differences! School

English: Frequent formulaic structures, beginning with early storybooks

  • Topic statements

  • Characters

  • Development of central idea/plot

  • Prove something, argue something with examples

  • Series of examples

  • Conclusions


English oral language instruction
English Oral Language Instruction School

  • Some Hmong students have been exposed to this oral narrative style.

  • Some have not…

  • But, consider what the literature says about helping students develop oral language in English…


California first grade standards
California First Grade Standards School

  • 1.2.0 Reading Comprehension

  • Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

  • 1.2.7 Retell the central ideas of simple expository or narrative passages.  

  • 1.2.5 Confirm predictions about what will happen next in text by identifying key words

  • 1.3.0 Literary Response and Analysis 


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

  • Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text School

  •  1.3.1 Identify and describe the story elements of plot, setting, and

     characters, including the story's beginning, middle, and ending.

  •  1.3.3 Recollect, talk, and write about books read during the school year.

  • 1.2.0 Speaking Application (Genres and their Characteristics)

  •  1.2.2 Retell stories using basic story grammar, sequencing story events by answering who, what, when, where, why, and how questions.


More on how did i get here
More on: “How Did I Get Here?” School

Educational Experience/Interests

+

Work Experience

+

Situation in California

+

Current Research Needs

+

Population of Interest

= Dissertation Research


Dissertation research
Dissertation Research School

  • Response to Intervention and Literacy: A Bright Spot for Hmong Speaking English Language Learners?

  • University of California at Davis, Spring 2011


My daily affirmation throughout the research process if you think you re on to something
My Daily Affirmation Throughout The Research Process: SchoolIf you think you’re on to something….


Even if you aren t sure exactly where you re going stay on course
Even School if you aren’t sure EXACTLY where you’re going—Stay On Course!!!



Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children
P.S………… School

  • This also pertains to our teamwork on Response to Intervention projects….


I got by with a little help from my friends
I got by with a little help from my friends!!!!! School

Research Assistants from the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at Sacramento State:

Debbie ToblerPlouaVue

Stacie Chastain Jayne Adams

AronGoeke

Editorial Assistant: Tracy Stage



Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

Question 1. Can intense, short term curriculum modifications designed by special educators for students with language-based reading difficulties enhance pre-requisite English literacy skills for typically developing ELL students whose first language is Hmong?

In other words:

Can such a program help build bridges for these students?

Help differentiate difference from disorder AND provide a foundation from which to proceed?


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

Question 2: Does the inclusion of an oral-narrative component designed by Speech-Language Pathologists enhance these students’ developing English literacy skills? Will this component yield better results if it is grounded in sociocultural reading theory?

In other words:

Can specific program components help build bridges for these students?


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children
Question 3: How will acquired skills impact these students’ performance in the general education language arts curriculum?

The whole point!


Specific grounding in english systems of language a place to start building bridges
Specific grounding in English systems of language: A place to start building bridges

  • Curriculum-based intervention

  • Phonological awareness and phonics activities related to curriculum selections

  • Vocabulary from curriculum selections

  • Oral narratives around curriculum selections-promoting morphology, syntax, and story retell


Anticipated challenges
Anticipated Challenges to start building bridges

  • Hybridity of cultural identities

  • Individual backgrounds and linguistic differences within groups will performance and are difficult to account for

  • Which generation are we examining? Is culture still “alive” within the family unit?

  • Ability to isolate variables in social sciences…

  • If we do find significant improvements, will they carryover long-term?


Current research agenda
Current Research Agenda to start building bridges

  • 39 Hmong ELL Students

    First grade, similar SES, similar background and educational experiences, began speaking English in school, 1-2 years of instruction in English,

    No suspected primary language delay, “at-risk” for academic failure in Language Arts curriculum adoption


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

  • Four groups: Control, Leg, to start building bridgesOnleg, Cronleg

  • 7 weeks, small groups/varied language abilities, 19 sessions

  • Intervention: 2 stories from the curriculum-Frontloading


Curriculum selections open court adams et al 2002
Curriculum Selections: Open Court to start building bridges(Adams et al., 2002)


Curriculum selections
Curriculum Selections to start building bridges


Curriculum selections1
Curriculum Selections to start building bridges


Literacy enhancement group leg
Literacy Enhancement Group (LEG) to start building bridges

  • Hierarchichal Phonological Awareness Activities (Word, Syllable, and Sound levels) (Based on: Goldsworthy, 1998)

  • Letter-Word Identification Activities (Word Attack) (See Word Wheel)

    Decontextualized

    Targets: Phonology/Phonics


Pa activities based on goldsworthy sourcebooks for phonological awareness
PA Activities based on: GOLDSWORTHY SOURCEBOOKS for PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS

  • Delmar/Cengage Learning

  • Activities at word, syllable, sound levels

  • 35-36 activities/story

  • 10 stimulus items/activity


New sourcebook for 2012
New Sourcebook for 2012! PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS

  • Goldsworthy, C. & Pieretti, R. Sourcebook of Phonological Awareness Volume IV: Curriculum Relevant Literature. Clifton Park: Delmar/Cengage Learning.

  • Activities based on stories commonly found in major U.S. Kindergarten and First Grade curriculum adoptions.


Sample word level activities
SAMPLE WORD LEVEL ACTIVITIES PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS

  • “How many words do you hear?” the leaves (2)

  • “Tell me which word is missing?” sang, frog sang (frog)

  • “Supply missing word.” It was _____ (spring)

  • “Rearrange these words.” spring was it (it was spring)

    **Use manipulatives and fade…………


Sample syllable level activities
SAMPLE SYLLABLE LEVEL ACTIVITIES PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS

  • Delete syllables: “Say groundhog without ground” (hog)

  • Adding syllables: “Add in to the end of rob” (robin)

  • Substituting syllables: “Say robin. Instead of -in say -er” (robber)

    **Use manipulatives and fade…………


Sample phoneme level activities
SAMPLE PHONEME LEVEL ACTIVITIES PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS

  • Guess which word doesn’t rhyme with the other 3: spring, ring, the, king (the)

  • Blending sounds: b + unny; gr + ound

  • Substituting initial sound: “Say log. Instead of /l/ say /b/” (bog)

  • Identify all the sounds in the word: bunny =

    /b/ /short u/ /n/ /long e/

    **Use manipulatives and fade…………



Six selected rimes word families bunny own ing og one ind
Six selected rimes/word families PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESSBunny: -own, -ing, -og, -one, -ind





Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children
“Timed” reading and sorting activities: Modified from the RAVE-0 program (Wolf & Miller, 1997; Wolf, Miller, & Donnelly, 2000)

  • Read your journal lists and “beat your time”

  • Sort cards printed with words from the lists into respective “word family” piles and “beat your time”


Oral narrative literacy enhancement group onleg
Oral Narrative Literacy Enhancement Group (ONLEG) the RAVE-0 program

Add in before LEG activities:

  • Primary discussion of six selected multiple meaning words from story

  • Presentation of story with open-ended questions (based on Text Talk, Beck & McKeown, 2001)

  • Scaffolded story retelling

    (based on Linking the Strands of Language and

    Literacy ,Goldsworthy, C. with contributions

    by Lambert, K., 2010)

    -Contextualized

    -Targets: Phonology/Phonics/Vocabulary/Oral Language Development


Storyboard a map
Storyboard: A Map the RAVE-0 program

Generic icon introduction (see picturestoryboard)

  • Someone (Character)

  • Somewhere (Setting)

  • Wanted

  • First

  • But

  • Next

  • But

  • Next

  • But

  • Next

  • Solution

  • Feelings


Storyboard sequence
Storyboard Sequence the RAVE-0 program

  • Group orally labels each pictured generic icon when queried by teacher: Every story is about someone or a character. Who is the someone in this story?”

  • Retell as a group, taking turns, with specific pictured icons to place on the board when handed them

  • Retell as a group, taking turns, selecting correct pictured icon from an array of three

  • SIMPLE retell individually, pointing to each icon on the board, receive help and feedback from group, if needed


Specific icons related to story next he meets the robin
Specific icons related to story: the RAVE-0 program “Next he meets the robin”


Specific icons related to story but he can t live in the log
Specific icons related to story: the RAVE-0 program “But he can’t live in the log.”


Specific icons related to story solution he met a white bunny
Specific icons related to story (Solution): the RAVE-0 program “He met a white bunny.”


Specific icons related to story feelings the bunny felt happy and safe
Specific icons related to story (Feelings): the RAVE-0 program “The bunny felt happy and safe.”


Culturally relevant oral narrative literacy enhancement group cronleg
Culturally-Relevant Oral Narrative Literacy Enhancement Group (CRONLEG)

Add in before LEG and ONLEG activities:

  • Unit based on Language Experience Approach (Nessel & Jones, 1981; Craig, 1980; Anne

    Arundel Public Schools, 1980; Bank Street, 2009).

  • Developed in consultation with native-Hmong speaking research assistant

  • Introduced to one critical theme

    from each story (“Home”)

    Targets: Contextualized/Culturally-

    Relevant Connections


Culturally relevant oral narrative literacy enhancement group cronleg1
Culturally-Relevant Oral Narrative Literacy Enhancement Group (CRONLEG)

  • Scaffolded word web about theme

  • Character development

  • Develop a unique tale based on

    group’s knowledge and experiences to parallel the Open Court story to come

  • Then introduced to the storyboard concept

  • Retell of story using storyboard by group and then individually


Culturally relevant oral narrative literacy enhancement group cronleg2
Culturally-Relevant Oral Narrative Literacy Enhancement Group (CRONLEG)

  • Story written down in a book to “read” in subsequent session

  • Following reading of Open Court story, comparisons between students’ book and the story made by the group

  • Drew upon individual oral narrative experiences

    while simultaneously tying the activity

    to narrative style of Academic English

    -Contextualized/cultural connections/Bridges

    -Targets: Phonology/Phonics/Vocabulary/Oral Language Development


Results
Results……………. Group (CRONLEG)

Question 1. Can intense, short term curriculum modifications designed by special educators for students with language-based reading difficulties enhance pre-requisite English literacy skills for typically developing ELL students whose first language is Hmong?

  • Multivariate Analysis of Variance: Significant mean raw score change difference (p<.05) between performance of Control (.80) and CRONLEG (3.67) on Passage Comprehension (WJIII)


Results1
Results…… Group (CRONLEG)

Overall Trends:

  • Means indicate that students participating in this intense, short term RTI curriculum modification were reading more words and understanding more of what they read than controls


Results2
Results…. Group (CRONLEG)

  • Phonological awareness (PA)

  • Vocabulary

  • Decoding

  • Reading Comprehension


Pa ctopp mean standard score changes by treatment phonological awareness composite
PA: Group (CRONLEG)CTOPP Mean Standard Score Changes by Treatment: Phonological Awareness Composite


Vocabulary rowpvt mean standard score changes by treatment receptive vocabulary
Vocabulary: Group (CRONLEG)ROWPVT Mean Standard Score Changes by Treatment: Receptive Vocabulary


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children
Decoding and Comprehension: Group (CRONLEG) WJIII Mean Raw Score Changes by Treatment: Letter-Word ID and Passage Comprehension


Remember
Remember! Group (CRONLEG)

  • All of the activities selected are recommended in one way or another in the literature: Evidence Based…….

  • BUT!!! Which combinations of activities help the most? Which methodologies help the most?


We really wanted to know can oral narrative help
We really wanted to know: Can oral narrative help? Group (CRONLEG)

  • Story retell portion speaks to the building of linguistic bridges through increased oral narratives.

  • Provides opportunities for English vocabulary expansion, connections to prior knowledge and life experiences, increased understanding about the literacy practices of the target language/language of instruction


We really wanted to know did promotion of sociocultural connections help
We really wanted to Know: Did promotion of Group (CRONLEG)sociocultural connections help?

Author Reader

Experiences/Knowledge: Experiences/Knowledge:

Grounded in culture Grounded in culture

Increase analysis of interconnections

Can we promote this in children?


Results3
Results….. Group (CRONLEG)

  • Question 2: Does the inclusion of an oral-narrative component designed by Speech-Language Pathologists enhance these students’ developing English literacy skills? Will this component yield better results if it is grounded in sociocultural reading theory?

  • Trends indicate that language-rich oral narratives may have been a key element!


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children
Groups demonstrating the largest mean standard score change pre- to post-intervention on selected measures


Results4
Results……. pre- to post-intervention on selected measures

  • Question 3: How will acquired skills impact these students’ performance in the general education language arts curriculum?

  • Open Court Reading Lions and Comprehension measures did not reveal clear patterns despite noted improvements.

  • Limited linguistic knowledge, flexibility and schema lead to problems with problem solving, inference, and irregular orthographic patterns


Results an added benefit teacher questionnaire
Results….An Added Benefit!!!!!!!!!! pre- to post-intervention on selected measuresTeacher Questionnaire

  • Increased confidence regarding story comprehension

  • Increased classroom participation/engagement


Implications
Implications pre- to post-intervention on selected measures

  • Evidence suggests that contextualized, language-rich oral narratives may be an essential element for Hmong speaking ELLs: PA, Decoding, and participation and engagement

  • Emphasizing learning language by making sense or meaning out of experience with communicative contexts……(Norris & Hoffman, 1990).


Implications1
Implications… pre- to post-intervention on selected measures

  • These findings are particularly important with ELL populations who have not demonstrated a history of academic success

  • Engagement is positively correlated with school success


A case study
A Case Study: pre- to post-intervention on selected measures

  • P.J.

  • 7-5, Hmong American Male, First grade, regular education

  • Met all criteria for referral

  • CELDT: EI (expected for 1-2 years of instruction in English)

  • Reading Lions: 18.5 WPM 50th percentile= 35WPM

  • Teacher: Frequently attempts to engage in classroom discussion around curriculum. Difficult time decoding and comprehending when reading.


P j s cronleg performance
P.J.’s CRONLEG Performance pre- to post-intervention on selected measures

  • Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) Note: A=Average, BA=Below Average, P=Poor


P j s cronleg performance1
P.J.’s CRONLEG Performance pre- to post-intervention on selected measures

  • Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP)


P j s cronleg performance2
P.J.’s CRONLEG Performance pre- to post-intervention on selected measures

  • Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement Note: A=Average, HA=High Average


P j s cronleg performance3
P.J.’s CRONLEG Performance pre- to post-intervention on selected measures

  • Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test (vocabulary recognition)


P j s cronleg performance4
P.J.’s CRONLEG Performance pre- to post-intervention on selected measures

So What? Are there curriculum improvements?

  • Reading Lions Fluency Pre: 18.5 WPM

  • Reading Lions Fluency Post: 21 WPM

  • Optional Open Court Fluency

    Measure 27 WPM


P j s cronleg performance5
P.J.’s CRONLEG Performance pre- to post-intervention on selected measures

  • So What? Are there curriculum improvements?

    Home for a Bunny Lesson Assessment:

    Comprehension: 7/7 Correct

    Vocabulary: 4/4 Correct

    Phonics: 6/6 Correct


Research assistant notes on p j
Research Assistant Notes on P.J. pre- to post-intervention on selected measures

  • Appeared to gain confidence using oral English, decoding words, and answering questions about text

  • Storyboard seemed to aid comprehension

  • Oral output increased

  • Increased awareness of all sounds in words: decreased omission of final sounds and vowel substitutions in spontaneous speech

  • Overall speech intelligibility seemed to improve


Research assistant notes
Research Assistant Notes pre- to post-intervention on selected measures

  • Appeared to gain confidence using oral English, decoding words, and answering questions about text

  • Storyboard seemed to aid comprehension

  • Oral output increased

  • Increased awareness of all sounds in words: decreased omission of final sounds and vowel substitutions in spontaneous speech

  • Overall speech intelligibility seemed to improve


Research we begin confused and we end confused but hopefully at a higher level of confusion
Research: We begin confused and we end confused…..but hopefully at a higher level of confusion!!!!


More questions and future directions
More Questions and Future Directions…….. hopefully at a higher level of confusion!!!!

  • Follow up study: Will current participants’ improved reading and comprehension begin to provide “schema” and an increased understanding of the “richness” of the English language?

  • Would this suggest that Hmong speaking ELLs might benefit from a positive Mathew Effect (Stanovich, 1986, 2000) as noted in reading and writing research?


More questions and future directions1
More Questions and Future Directions…. hopefully at a higher level of confusion!!!!

  • Would we find similar findings with ELLs

    from other understudied groups?

  • CRONLEG may have taken time and focus away from PA/Phonics training. Can ONLEG by itself constitute “good teaching” (Delpit, 1998) from a sociocultural standpoint? Design such a study comparing ONLEG to Controls.


Onleg modifications from cronleg
ONLEG Modifications from CRONLEG?? hopefully at a higher level of confusion!!!!

  • The Language Experience Approach (have student tell story first, then write it down, then move into the actual story)

  • Build on Schema Activation: Access what students know and begin there.

  • What do I know about bunnies? What do I want to know about bunnies?




Rather than this guy
Rather than this guy……… resemble this guy…………


It still all comes down to collaboration
It resemble this guy…………still all comes down to collaboration………


In conclusion why involve the slp
In Conclusion….Why Involve the SLP? resemble this guy…………

  • ELLs are frequently among the students referred to SST and IEP teams as being “at risk of academic failure.”

  • SLP training leads to heightened awareness of multicultural issues and linguistic differences.

  • SLPs are the professionals among the inter-disciplinary special education teams whose expertise is in the area of language development and literacy.


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children


As already stated it is easy to be afraid that being involved in rti will create more work for us
As already stated, it is easy to be afraid that being involved in RtI will create more work for us!

  • But ultimately, it will make our jobs easier because fewer children will be on IEPs

  • More students will receive support BEFORE we are asked to formally evaluate them for special education


So instead of being overwhelmed by the idea of rti
So instead of being overwhelmed by the idea of RtI… involved in

  • Hopefully we will find ways to support ELL students as part of a school team approach

  • In the ideal team approach, the work load is shared


Collaboration
Collaboration involved in

So what if I’m not involved in RTI? How can I use this information?

  • SST: Suggesting classroom modifications and pre-testing and pre-intervention strategies for ELLs

  • Consultation and Collaboration with teaches and team members for ELLs who do qualify


V increasing family involvement in students learning

V involved in . INCREASING FAMILY INVOLVEMENT IN STUDENTS’ LEARNING


Some educators tell parents to speak only english at home
Some educators tell parents to “speak only English at home”

Because they believe that an ELL child with a LLD will be confused by a dual language environment. However, research has shown that this is not true.

Children with LI can and do learn 2 languages effectively; being a proficient bilingual is very advantageous

If a child is cut off from one of his languages, it can have a negative impact in many areas.


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children
Here in the U.S., we as professionals routinely expect families to be involved in their children’s learning.

However, in some cultures, families believe that school and related activities are the responsibility of professionals—not families!

Thus, families may be offended at being asked to participate in educational decisions, carryover activities, etc. because these things are not their job. Education of children is the job of professionals. Raising children and providing discipline is the job of the family!


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

In these cases, we can utilize the services of cultural mediators to help families realize that in the U.S., they are expected to be an integral part of the educational team. This may be a difficult transition for many families.

A cultural mediator is a person from the family’s cultural and linguistic background who acts as a go-between for professionals and family members, helping them work successfully with one another.


Remember that in some cultures
Remember that in some cultures mediators to help families realize that in the U.S., they are expected to be an integral part of the educational team. This may be a difficult transition for many families.

Older siblings take responsibility for younger ones. Thus, SLPs may have better success engaging the support of older siblings for things like carryover of homework assignments.

Also, parents and grandparents may speak little-no English. Older siblings usually do speak English, and can be most helpful in assisting with homework assignments and other carryover activities.


We can help parents understand what u s schools expect of them and their children
We can help parents understand what U.S. schools expect of them and their children

Parents need to understand the academic/ curricular standards of their children’s schools. For example, here in California, students begin learning multiplication at the end of second grade. In some countries, students do not begin learning this information until third grade.

If parents can volunteer in their children’s classrooms, they will understand the demands of the curriculum much better. Parents who speak little English can still help with tasks such as xeroxing, collating, and stapling assignments.


Many families are surviving
Many families are surviving… them and their children

Keep assignments short and simple.

When we do give homework, it needs to only take a few minutes to do, and it needs to be understandable to families.

We often tell the student what needs to be done, make sure she has a parent sign the assignment, and offer a sticker or small prize for returning it.



In many cultures infants and young children are not considered conversational partners
In many cultures, infants and young children are not considered conversational partners

Many cultures value quietness in children

Thus, they may receive a great deal of love and affection, but language stimulation may not be occurring at a level expected by mainstream society.

Again, it can be very advantageous to involve older siblings in language stimulation activities


Help parents find out
Help parents find out considered conversational partners

About local adult literacy services and English classes.

For example, English classes are often offered at night through local educational agencies.


Encourage students to read to their parents in english
Encourage students to read to their parents in English considered conversational partners

This helps develop students’ literacy skills.

Many parents want to learn English, and they are helped by hearing their children read to them in English.


Remember that some parents are non literate in english
Remember that some parents are non-literate in English… considered conversational partners

Send home wordless books that parents and children can look at together and discuss.

Encourage parents to read or discuss books with their children in L1.


Enhancing oral and literate skills for at risk ell children

Encourage them to take their children to the local library to check out books. Many developing countries don’t have public libraries; parents are often very happy to find this resource here in the U.S.

Help parents become aware of such things as garage sales and flea markets where they can purchase books very inexpensively.


We have been collecting and distributing gently used children s books to low ses preschoolers
We have been collecting and distributing gently-used children’s books to low-SES preschoolers…


To date
To date… children’s books to low-SES preschoolers…

  • We have collected and distributed over 12,000 books; many have been given to families who do not speak English

  • We have collected these books from university students, churches, and friends


Some books
Some books…. children’s books to low-SES preschoolers…

  • Have been shared with classroom teachers (e.g., Head Start, district preschool programs) to help prepare at-risk preschoolers to succeed in the general education setting


It has been very rewarding
It has been very rewarding… children’s books to low-SES preschoolers…

  • To put books into the hands of children and families who otherwise might not have any books in the home


Thank you for all you do on behalf of our children

Thank you for all you do on behalf of our children children’s books to low-SES preschoolers…


Selected bibliography
Selected Bibliography children’s books to low-SES preschoolers…

  • Adams, M., Bereiter, C., Campione, J., Hirshberg, J., McKeough, A., Pressley, M., Roit, M., Scardamalia, M., & Treadway, G. (2002). Open court reading. Level 1. Book 2. Columbus: McGraw-Hill.

  • Anne Arundel County Public Schools (Md.). A guide for use of language experience approach in kindergarten. Annapolis, Md. The Schools.

  • Artiles, A.J., Rueda, R., Salaar, J.J., & Higareda, I. (2005). Within group diversity in minority disproportionate representation: English language learners in urban school districts. Exceptional Children, 71, 283-300.

  • August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C., & Snow, C. (2005). The critical role of vocabulary development for English language learners. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice 20(1), 50-57.

  • Bank Street. (2009). Literacy Guide. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from www.bnkst.edu/literacyguide/story.html.

  • Beck, I., & McKeown, M. (2001). Text Talk: Capturing the benefits of reading-aloud experiences for young children. The Reading Teacher, 55, 10-20.

  • Brice, A.E., & Brice, R.G. (2009). Language development: Monolingual and bilingual acquisition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

  • California Department of Education. Statewide English Learners by Language and Grade. Retrived 1-28-11 from http://dq.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/LEPbyLang1.asp?cChoice=LepbyLang1&cYear=2009-10&cLevel=State&cTopic=LC&myTimeFrame=S&submit1=Submit

  • Craig, L. (1980). Language Experience Approach/Metropoloitan Cooperative Education Service Agency. Northbrook, Ill.: Hubbard.

  • Delpit, L. (1998). The politics of teaching literate discourse. In V. Zamel & R. Spack (Eds.), Negotiating academic literacies: Teaching and learning across language and cultures (pp. 207-218). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • Fadiman, A. (1997). The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.


Selected bibliography cont d
Selected Bibliography (Cont’d) children’s books to low-SES preschoolers…

  • Gersten, R., & Geva, E. (2003). Teaching reading to early language learners. Educational Leadership, 60, 44-49.

  • Goldsworthy, C.L. (2001). Sourcebook of Phonological Awareness Activities: Children’s Core Literature. San Diego: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.

  • Goldsworthy, C.L. with Lambert, K.R. (2010). Linking the strands of language and literacy: A resource manual. San Diego: Plural Publishing.

  • Harper, C., de Jong, E., & Platt, E. (2008). Marginalizing English as a second language teacher expertise: the exclusionary consequence of No Child Left Behind. Language Policy, 7, 267-284.

  • Justice, L.M., Kaderavek, J.N., Fan, X., Sofka, A., & Hunt, A. (2009). Accelerating preschoolers’ early literacy development through classroom-based teacher-child storybook reading and explicit print referencing. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40, 67-85.

  • Justice, L.M. (2010). Communication sciences and disorders: A contemporary perspective (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

  • Kaderavek, J. (2011). Language disorders in children: Fundamental concepts of assessment and intervention. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

  • Kan, P.F. (2010). Hmong-English Bilingual Spekers: Resources for Speech-Language Pathologists, Educators, and Parents. Retrieved October 10, 2010 from http://www.tc.umn.edu/-Kanx0004.

  • Kan, P.F., & Kohnert, K. (2005). Preschoolers learning Hmong and English: Lexical-semantic skills in L1 and L2. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 48, 372-383.

  • Kohnert, K. (2008). Language disorders in bilingual children and adults. San Diego: Plural Publishing.

  • Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S., Hickkman-Davis, P., & Kouzekanani, K. (2003). Effectiveness of supplemental reading instruction for second-grade English language learners with reading difficulties. The Elementary School Journal,103(3), 221-238.


Selected bibliography cont d1
Selected Bibliography (Cont’d) children’s books to low-SES preschoolers…

  • Langdon, H. (2008). Assessment and intervention for communication disorders in culturally and linguistically diverse populations. New York: Thomson/Delmar.

  • Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S., Prater, K., & Cirino, P. (2006). The response to intervention of English Language Learners at risk for reading problems. Journal of Reading Disabilities, 39(5), 390-398.

  • Lovelace, S., & Stewart, S.R. (2009). Effects of robust vocabulary instruction and multicultural text on the development of word knowledge among African American children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 18, 168-179.

  • Lovett, M., DePalma, M., Frijters, J., Steinbach, K., Temple, M., Benson, N., & Lacerenze, L. (2008). Interventions for reading difficulties: A comparison of response to intervention by ELL and EFL struggling readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41, 333-352.

  • Magagnini, S. (2010, March 1). Hmong cultural split arises over school. The Sacramento Bee, pp. B1, B4.

  • Nelson, N.W. (2010). Language and literacy disorders: Infancy through adolescence. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

  • Nessel, D., & Jones, B. (1981). The language experience approach to reading: A handbook for teachers. New York & London: Teachers College Columbia Press.

  • Norris, J., & Hoffman, P. (1990). Whole language intervention: For school-age children. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group, Inc.

  • Owens, R.E., Metz, D.E., & Farinella, K.A. (2011). Introduction to communication disorders: A lifespan evidence-based perspective (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Publishing.

  • Pollard-Durodola, S.D., Mathes, P.G., Vaughn, S., Cardenas-Hagan, E. & Linan-Thompson, S. (2006). The role of oracy in developing comprehension in Spanish-speaking English language learners. Topics in Language Disorders, 26, 365-38.

  • Roseberry-McKibbin, C. (2007). Language disorders in children: A multicultural and case perspective. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.


Selected bibliography cont d2
Selected Bibliography (Cont’d) children’s books to low-SES preschoolers…

  • Roseberry-McKibbin, C. (2008). Increasing language skills of students from low income backgrounds. San Diego: Plural Publishing.

  • Roseberry-McKibbin, C., & Hegde, M.N. (2011). An advanced review of speech-language pathology: Preparation for PRAXIS and comprehensive examination (3rd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro•Ed.

  • Rubba, J. (2006). An overview of the English morphological system. Retrieved October 16, 2010 from http://cla.calpoly.edu/~jrubba/morph/morph.over.html.

  • Ryan, S. (2009). The effects of a sound-field amplification system on managerial time in middle school physical education settings. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40, 131-137.

  • Saunders, W. & O’Brien, G. (2006). Oral Language. In F. Genesee, K. Lindholm-Leary, W. Saunders, & D. Chastain (Eds.), Educating English language learners (pp 14-63). New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • Shaywitz, S. (2004). Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for reading problems at any level. New York: Alfred K. Knopf.

  • Stanovich, K.E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21(4), 360-407.

  • Stanovich, K.E. (2000). Progress in understanding reading: Scientific foundations in new frontiers. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Ukrainetz, T.A., Ross, C.L., & Harm, H.M. (2009). An investigation of treatment scheduling for phonemic awareness with kindergarteners who are at risk for reading difficulties. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40, 86-100.

  • Vang, C. T. (2004-05). Hmong-American K-12 students and the academic skills needed for a college education: A review of the existing literature and suggestions for future research. Hmong Studies Journal, 5, 1-31.

  • Vaughn, S., Mathes, P., Linan-Thompson, S., Cirino, P., Carlson, C., Pollard-Durodola, S., Cardenas-Hagan, E., & Francis, D. (2006). Effectiveness of an English intervention for first-frade English language learners at risk for reading problems. The elementary school journal, 107(2), 153-180.


Selected bibliography cont d3
Selected children’s books to low-SES preschoolers… Bibliography (Cont’d)

  • Wolf, M., & Miller, L. (1997). As reported by Wolf, M. (1999). The retrieval, automaticity, vocabulary-elaboration-orthography (RAVE-O) reading intervention manual. An unpublished manual for NICHD grant # 1r55HD/OD30970-01A1.

  • Wolf, M., Miller, L., & Donnelly, K. (2000). Retrieval, Automaticity, Vocabulary, Elaboration, Orthography (RAVE-O): A comprehensive, fluency-based reading intervention program. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33 (4), 375-386.