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Mrs. Gosnell World Civilizations. Ancient Greece. Geography. Southeast Europe Peninsula Land surrounded on three sides by water Sea cuts into land Hills and mountains Land unavailable for farming No major rivers flowing through Dependent on sea. Survival. Rely on the sea for survival

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Ancient Greece

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Mrs gosnell world civilizations

Mrs. Gosnell

World Civilizations

Ancient Greece


Geography

Geography

  • Southeast Europe

  • Peninsula

    • Land surrounded on three sides by water

    • Sea cuts into land

  • Hills and mountains

    • Land unavailable for farming

    • No major rivers flowing through

    • Dependent on sea


Survival

Survival

  • Rely on the sea for survival

    • Fisherman, sailors, traders, and merchants

  • Could only grow two crops

    • Grapes and Olives

      • Traded these with Egypt for wheat and barley


Ancient greece

Ancient Greece

  • Mycenaean and Minoans

    • Set up civilizations on the island of Crete

    • Migrated northward into Greece

  • Dark Ages

    • 1200-800 B.C.

    • Don’t really know what happened

    • No written records

    • Famine and food shortages led to conflict


Ancient greece1

Ancient Greece

  • Trojan Wars

    • Homer

      • First poet of the ancient world

      • Blind

      • Depicts events in epic poems

        • Story with a hero who serves as a role model for Greek youth

        • The Iliad

          • Three day period of Trojan War

          • Hero was Achilles

        • The Odyssey

          • Adventure returning from Trojan Wars

          • Hero was Odysseus


Forms of government

Forms of Government

  • Oligarchy

    • Few people in control

    • Assembly of voting citizens

      • Based on wealth

  • Tyranny

    • One person in control

      • Tyrant

      • Cruel and Merciless


Forms of government1

Forms of Government

  • Democracy

    • Rule by the people

    • Only free, adult males could vote or participate in government


Two outstanding city states

Two outstanding City-States

  • Athens

  • Sparta

  • Each City-state was independent of the other

    • They kept their own government and laws


Two outstanding city states1

Two outstanding City-States


Shared characteristics

Shared Characteristics

  • Common Language

  • Shared Heroes

  • Olympic games

  • Same gods and Religious beliefs


Democracy in athens

Democracy in Athens

  • Trial by jury

    • 101-501 Jurors

    • Difficult to bribe

  • Ostracism

    • Impeachment of a bad public official

    • Official was then exiled for ten years


Fact about greece

Fact about Greece

  • Greece is a prime target for attack by the Persians, located directly across the Asia Minor (Turkey). Persian King Xerxes wanted Greece. This resulted in the Persian Wars (490-479 B.C.)


Battle of marathon

Battle of Marathon

  • 25 miles from Athens

  • Athenians asked for military assistance from Sparta

    • They refused

  • Athens was badly outnumbered

  • Used their strong navy to defend themselves

  • Surprisingly Athens defeats Persia

  • Runner sent t Athens to tell of the victory

    • Ran over 25 miles

    • Nike! Nike! (Victory)

    • Then dropped dead


Battle of thermopylae

Battle of Thermopylae

  • Persia vs. Sparta

  • Land battle

  • Spartans lost over 300 men

  • Sparta loses to Persia


Battle of the bay of salamis

Battle of the Bay of Salamis

  • Athenian navy vs. Persian Navy

  • A smaller, faster Athenian ships outmatched larger Persian ships

  • Persians lose about half the fleet

  • Persia defeated


Battle of plataea

Battle of Plataea

  • Persian army retreats and returns home

  • Persia accepts defeat

  • Greeks had defeated the Persians, but felt that they we merely lucky in that go around, Athens and Sparta began to talk of unification and for the Delian League. Athenian, Pericles would be the leader of the league. All Greek city-states were included in the alliance. This ushers in the Age of Pericles (460- 430 B.C.)


Delian league

Delian League

  • All city-states pay taxes to the league’s treasury

  • Paid men to attend assembly meetings

  • Paid jurors in trials

  • Built forts along the coastline to protect Athens

  • Brought scholars from all over the Mediterranean world

    • Classical Age in Greece


Delian league1

Delian League

  • Uniform system in currency

  • Spending money out of the Delian League treasury to improve Athens begins to upset the Spartans. Due to this Sparta begins to fight with Athens politically and militarily. The Peloponnesian War broke out between them. That war lasts 27 years with Sparta eventually winning.


Reasons for defeat

Reasons for defeat

  • Persian Navy lends support to Sparta

  • Plague hits Athens

    • Wiped out 1/3 of the population

      • Pericles died in the plague

  • After 202 B.C., Athens would never again be an international power


Contributions of the greeks

Contributions of the Greeks

Architecture

  • Parthenon

    • Best example of Classical Greek architecture

    • Sit on the Acropolis is Athens

    • Simplicity and beauty


Contributions of the greeks1

Contributions of the Greeks

  • Religion

  • Polytheism

    • Zeus

      • King of the gods

    • Athena

      • Goddess of wisdom and industry

    • Aphrodite

      • Goddess of love and beauty

    • Apollo

      • God of art and music


Contributions of the greeks2

Contributions of the Greeks

Theatre:

  • Tragedy

    • War stories

    • Human suffering

    • Sophocles and Euripides

  • Comedies

    • Poked fun at public officials

    • Aristophanes

  • Amphitheatre

    • Outdoor theatre

    • Sound projection

    • Wore masks

    • All Greek actors were male


Contributions of the greeks3

Contributions of the Greeks

Poets:

  • Homer

  • Sappho

    • Love poems

    • Female


Contributions of the greeks4

Contributions of the Greeks

Historians:

  • Herodotus

    • Father of History

    • Persian Wars

  • Thucydides

    • Peloponnesian Wars


Contributions of the greeks5

Contributions of the Greeks

Science:

  • Scientific method

    • Aristarchus

      • Sun was the center of the universe

      • Earth rotated on an axis

        • He could not prove it, no one believed him


Contributions of the greeks6

Contributions of the Greeks

Medicine:

  • Hippocrates

    • Father of Medicine

    • Set up a medical school

    • Natural reason for why something was wrong

    • Hippocratic Oath

      • Could not perform abortions


Contributions of the greeks7

Contributions of the Greeks

Math:

  • Euclid

    • Father of Geometry

  • Value of Pi

    • 3.14

  • Pythagoras

    • Pythagorean theory

  • Archimedes

    • Practical Mathematics

      • Used to invent and build


Contributions of the greeks8

Contributions of the Greeks

Philosophy:

  • Love wisdom

  • Socrates

    • Socratic Method

      • To gain knowledge you must ask questions

    • Charged with corruption of the youth

      • Young people were asking to many questions

      • Forced to drink poison


Contributions of the greeks9

Contributions of the Greeks

Plato

  • Socrates student

  • Set up schools of philosophy

  • The Republic

    • Criticized democracy

      • Mob rule

      • Poor, corrupt leaders

    • Advocates philosopher kings


Contributions of the greeks10

Contributions of the Greeks

Aristotle

  • Attended Plato’s schools

  • Scientific minded philosopher

    • Reach truth through study of the natural world

    • Male by nature was superior and the female inferior

  • Hired by King Philip of Macedonia to tutor his young son Prince Alexander


Contributions of the greeks11

Contributions of the Greeks

  • Alexander the Great

    • Spread Greek culture all over the Mediterranean World

      • Touched 3 continents

        • Asia, Africa, Europe

    • Overly ambitious

      • King Philip was assassinated

        • By Alexander?

    • Died suddenly at age 33

      • Left no successor

      • Empire divided amongst his Generals

        • Empire collapses as Generals fight amongst themselves

          • Rome begins to conquer the area


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