OUTLINE. What are the problems of students? (Video)An interview with studentsTheoretical Perspectives to Students' NeedsMaslow's Theory (Group Discussion)Dreikurs' Theory (Drama)Glasser (Comparison with Maslow)CoppersmithErikson, Elkind (Analysis of a case in groups)Developmental AssetsWhy
1. Understanding Students’ Basic Psychological Needs Presenters:
Sedef Nur Yaman
2. OUTLINE What are the problems of students? (Video)
An interview with students
Theoretical Perspectives to Students’ Needs
Maslow’s Theory (Group Discussion)
Dreikurs’ Theory (Drama)
Glasser (Comparison with Maslow)
Erikson, Elkind (Analysis of a case in groups)
Why Do Students Drop the School? (Class Discussion)
The Issues of Order, Caring and Power (Video)
Discovering Students’ Needs (Group Work)
3. Understanding Students’ Basic Psychological Needs Before getting started:
What do you think students’ basic psychological needs are?
What might happen if those needs are not met?
5. -“Teachers are frustrated by their inability to determine the source of disruptive student misbehavior which disrupts learning.”
6. Why do children misbehave?
7. -BUT? the major impact on how students behave and learn is TEACHERS and SCHOOLS
- Conclusion?Relationship between effective learning/ behaving appropriately and personal and psychological needs met
8. Basic Concepts Motives – internal states that arouse and direct behavior toward specific objects or goals
Needs – states of tension within a person
10. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
12. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
14. Questionnaire Results
15. GROUP WORK 6-people groups
16. RUDOLF DREIKURS He bases his theory on the fact that children’s basic need is to be socially accepted.
Children have 4 goals in misbehaving:
1) Attention getting
4) Displays of inadequacy
17. ATTENTION GETTING
A student does this if s/he is deprived of the opportunity to gain status in the class.
Make notice during the lesson
Divert their friends’ attention
Ask unnecessary questions
Use eye contact
Ask question by saying their names
Thank them for answering the questions
If adults are ineffective at responding to attention getting, then the student will seek power.
Refuse to obey class rules
Want to have final say
Peer tutoring role
Leader in group activities
If the student is repulsed by the teacher’s own power, s/he will seek revenge.
Write on desks
Bully younger students
Use “I” language
Ask that student to prepare the class materials before the lesson
Provide positive relationship
20. DISPLAYS OF INADEQUACY
At the end of these attempts, the student gives up and expects failure.
Do not complete the assignments
Tend to use drugs and alcohol
21. We should not label students as “bad” or “disruptive”. They behave so because they want to meet their needs that way.
As educators, we should help them develop behaviours that meet their needs and also serve them efficiently throughout their lives.
22. William Glasser (Control Theory/Choice theory) understanding the five basic needs, a person is better able to make choices to improve quality of life
indicated that students will function productively only in school environments that allow them to a sense of control or power over learning.
Control Theory is very similar to Maslow’s Hierarchy
23. 5 basic needs:
Love and belonging
1. Survival: satisfying our physical needs such as food, shelter, clothing.
25. 2. Love and belonging: feeling accepted and loved by others
26. Power : feeling important
27. Freedom: being able to choose what we want to do with our lives
5. Fun: the ability to find enjoyment in life by learning and playing
In his Control Theory, Glasser says if these 5 basic needs are met, students will show higher performance.
29. Match Glasser’s 5 needs with Maslow’s hierarchy of levels
1. Survival …………………………………………
2. Belonging and love ………………………………………..
3. Power ………………………………………..
4. Freedom x
5. Fun x
(x means no correspondence)
MASLOW: Self-actualization/ Belongingness and affection/ Safety and security/ Physiological needs/Self-respect
30. Match Glasser’s 5 needs with Maslow’s hierarchy of levels
1. Survival Physiological needs Safety and security
2. Belonging and love Belongingness and affection
3. Power Self-respect
4. Freedom x
5. Fun x
(x means no correspondence)
31. Suggestion: Every public school educators or prospective teacher should spend an entire day by being a student.
understanding students’ feelings
a study: uncomfortable seats, breaks
32. Stanley Coopersmith (Dimensions of Self-esteem) 3 dimensions of Self-esteem:
Significance: feeling of being loved, cared about and valued in relationships
Competence: being able to perform socially valued task as well as others or better than others
33. Power : ability to control one’s environment.
If students are allowed to choose a topic to study, provide input into how the classroom is arranged, they experience a sense of power and they have higher self-esteem.
34. Human development theory
According to ERIK ERIKSON, there are eight stages of human psychosocial development:
3. Early Childhood
4. Elementary and Middle School Years
6. Young Adulthood
7. Middle Adulthood
8. Late Adulthood
35. Stage 1: Infancy (Age 0-1) : Trust vs. Mistrust
Stage 2:Toddler (Age 1-2) : Autonomy vs. Doubt
Stage 3: Early Childhood (Age 2-6) : Initiative vs. Guilt
Stage 4: Elementary and Middle School Years (Age 6-12) : Industry vs. Inferiority
36. Stage 5: Adolescence (Age12-18) : Identity vs. Role Confusion
Stage 6:Young Adulthood (16-40) : Intimacy vs. Isolation
Stage 7: Middle Adulthood (40-65) : Generativity vs. Stagnation
Stage 8: Late Adulthood (65 - --) : Integrity vs. Despair
37. SOCIAL FACTORS THEORY DAVID ELKIND
Suggested 3 basic implicit contracts governing the relationships between adults and children:
! Violation of these contracts by adults causes stress for children.
38. SOCIAL FACTORS THEORY
Responsibility-freedom contract: Sensitively monitoring the child’s level of intellectual, social and emotional development.
Violation of this contract occurs when adults fail to reward responsibility with freedom.
e.g. A student makes a reasonable request but the teacher treats with disrespect.
39. SOCIAL FACTORS THEORY 2. Achievement-support contract: Refers to adults expecting age-appropriate achievements and providing the necessary personal and material support to help children reach expected goals.
Violation of this contract occurs when adults don’t provide adequate support for students’ achievement.
40. SOCIAL FACTORS THEORY 3. Loyalty-commitment contract: Emphasizes adults’ expectations that children will respond with loyalty and acceptance of adults because of the time, effort, and energy adults give.
Violation of this contract occurs when children fail to provide adults with indications of loyalty commensurate with the efforts or commitment that adults see themselves as having made.
41. SOCIAL FACTORS THEORY JOAN LIPSITZ
Focused on the needs of early adolescence. Emphasized the importance of developing school environments that meet their developmental needs.
These needs include:
- Opportunities for self-exploration and self-definition
- Meaningful participation in school and community
- Positive social interaction with peers and adults
- Competence and achievement
- Structure and clear limits
42. SOCIAL FACTORS THEORY MARTIN SELIGMAN
Emphasized the importance of optimism. Stated that the basis of optimism lies in the way you think about causes. Listed 3 key factors that influence how students view causes of behavior.
3 key factors Parallels with Weiner’s
1. permanence 1. stability
2. pervasiveness 2. responsibility
3. personalization 3. locus
43. DEVELOPMENTAL ASSETS External Assets
-Support (Family, neighborhood, school climate, parent involvement)
-Empowerment (Community values youth, serving in the community, safety)
-Boundaries and Expectations (Family and school boundaries, rules and restrictions, high expectations)
-Constructive Use of Time (creative activities, youth programs, time at home)
44. DEVELOPMENTAL ASSETS Internal Assets
Commitment to Learning (Achievement Motivation, school engagement, bomding to school)
Positive Values (Equality, Conflict Resolution, Resistance Skills, Interpersonal Competence)
Positive Identity (Personal Power, Self-esteem, Sense of Purpose, Positive View of Personal Future)
45. As a teacher, what can you do? Create personally supportive and engaging environments. (communities of support)
Provide diversified instruction that meaningfully and actively engages students, enabling all students to utilize their preferred learning styles.
Involve students in creating and learning social roles and relationships within the school context
Utilize problem solving and conflict management as the central theme in dealing with behavior problems.
Teach students strategies for setting goals and monitoring their own behavior
46. AT RISK FOR SCHOOL FAILURE INDICATORS
47. STUDENTS AT RISK FOR SCHOOL FAILURE
48. Reasons for dropping out of school:
1) Poor adult-child relationship
2) A limited sense of personal efficacy
3) A tendency to focus on external factors
4) Low self- esteem
5) A poorly developed sense of social cognition
6) Poor problem solving skills
7) Difficulties with learning
49. HOW DOES SCHOOL CONTRIBUTE TO THIS? Schools’ very strict discipline strategies
Teachers’ mistreatment towards at risk students
ILKÖGRETIMDE OKUL BIRAKMA
%41.5 “Ben devam etmek istemedim”
%34.4ü “Ben ve ailem birlikte karar verdik”
%23.4ü “Babam okuldan aldi”
%13.8 göçten dolayi
%12.3 yasi büyüdügü için
%11i para kazanmak için
51. %27si okula ilgi duymama, ögretmenleriyle iyi geçinememe,
%15i okul masraflarinin çok yüksek olmasi,
%14ü ailesinin ekonomik faaliyetine yardimci olma ve ücretli çalismak zorunda olma,
%11i ailesinin izin vermemesi,
%9u ev islerinde ailesine yardimci olma ve küçük kardeslerine bakmak zorunda kalma,
%4ü uygun okulun olmamasi
52. LISEDE OKULU BIRAKMA
15-19 yas arasindaki kizlarin yüzde 50’si, erkeklerin ise yüzde 26’si ne çalisiyor ne de okuyor.
2009 yilinda her gün 2 bin ögrenci okuldan ayrilmis.
2009 yilinda erkek ögrencilerin yüzde 15’i okulu birakirken bu oranin meslek liselerinde yüzde 22, imam hatip liselerinde ise yüzde 16 olarak gerçeklestigi belirlendi.
53. En çok okulun birakildigi dönem ise dokuzuncu sinif. Kizlarin yüzde 64’ü, erkeklerin ise yüzde 76’si bu dönemde okulu birakiyor.
EGITIMDE AILE FAKTÖRÜ
Aile reisinin egitim durumu ve geliri
Kirsal kentlerdeki kizlarin yüzde 30’u egitime devam ederken, kentte bu oran yüzde 58 olarak belirlendi. Aile reisinin yüksekokul mezunu oldugu ailelerde kizlarin egitim orani yüzde 94 iken okur-yazar olmayan ailelerde bu oran yüzde 15’e kadar düsüyor.
55. ÜNIVERSITELERDE OKUL BIRAKMA
Egitim Hakki Platformu `www.af2008.org`, "Üniversitelerden Ilisikleri Kesilmis Ögrencilerle Ilgili Çalisma Raporu`nu AKP Bitlis Milletvekili ve Egitim Komisyonu üyesi Cemal Tasar"a sundu. Rapor, ögrencilerin büyük çogunlugunun maddi ve saglik sorunlari nedeniyle okullarini biraktiklarini ortaya koydu.
Yaklasik 7 bin ögrencinin katildigi anket sonuçlarina göre
En büyük sorun maddi imkansizliklar
Saglik sorunlari önemli unsur
Dikey geçiste intibak sorunu
(Egitim Hakki Platformu `www.af2008.org`, "Üniversitelerden Ilisikleri Kesilmis Ögrencilerle Ilgili Çalisma Raporu)
56. WHAT CAN BE DONE? 1)Create personally supportive and engaging environments
2)Provide various instruction enabling all students to utilize their preferred learning style
3)Involve students in creating learning social roles and relationships within the school context
4)Utilize problem solving and conflict management skills
5)Teach students setting goals and monitoring their own behaviour
57. The Issues of Order, Caring and Power What are the facts about order, caring and power?
For a safe school environment, order is indispensible.
Even if the students respect the order in classroom setting, in the playground or on the way to home, they might not.
Although beginning teachers try to create a positive learning environment at the beginning, they soon become frustrated by student behaviour and begin using methods of authotarian control.
58. The important question is NOT whether order needs to exist BUT how order is established and maintained.
The old disciplinary regime has failed and left the situation chaotic.
Safe schools are characterized by teachers knowing and valuing students, and relationships characterized by caring.
The Issues of Order, Caring and Power
59. The Issues of Order, Caring and Power The schools that feel safe don’t have metal detectors or armed security guards, and their principals don’t carry baseball bats. What these schools do have are a strong sense of community and collective responsibility.
The key to deal with school violence is close relationships among students and smaller communities in schools.
For some experts caring is the building block of successful education.
60. The Issues of Order, Caring and Power “Control and caring are not opposing terms: but the form of control is transformed by the presence of caring.” Bowers and Flinders (1990)
There are teachers who believe that in order to have order, you just get tougher and tougher with kids- that you impose more rules and harsher consequences to get students’ respect.
But it doesn’t work?
You have to demonstrate that you’re fair, that you stick by your word, THAT YOU CARE.
61. The Issues of Order, Caring and Power An example of establishing secure classroom:
The principal asked the teacher “Have they been doing their homework?” Although not all of them had, the teacher looked at the kids and then back to the principal, responding, “They’ve done well”
62. The Issues of Order, Caring and Power According to John Holt, there are two types of
Natural authority is based on a teacher’s natural skill in assisting students in the learning process, solving problems and modeling thoughtful, caring behavior.
Arbitrary or role-bound authority is the authority granted to educators by their roles as teachers, principals, counselors, and so on.
The more an educator uses natural authority the less they need to call on arbitrary authority.
The two types of authority are difficult to blend. Students are impressed by natural authority whereas they respond to arbitrary authority with confrontation. The Issues of Order, Caring and Power
64. The central role of community in meeting students’ needs
“From the “community-building in schools” perspective, the most effective answer to violence is not to intensify efforts to control, monitor, and punish, but to create communities in which students feel valued.”
65. METHODS FOR DISCOVERING STUDENTS’ NEEDS There are 3 basic methods for discovering students’ needs:
Examining theories and research results
Getting direct information from student
66. ACTIVITIES FOR DISCOVERING STUDENTS’ NEEDS Questionnaires can be used to elicit answers from students to determine their needs.
69. References: Jones, F., V., Jones, S. L. (2007) Comprehensive Classroom Management. Boston: Ally and Bacon