The muscular system
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THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM. THE MUSCLAR SYSTEM. FUNCTIONS: Body Movement Pump Blood Throughout body Move food through digestive system Control air movement in and out of the lungs. MUSCULAR SYSTEM. CONTRACTION. CONTRACTION : Shortening of a muscle. EXTENSION : stretching of a muscle .

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THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

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The muscular system

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM


The musclar system

THE MUSCLAR SYSTEM

  • FUNCTIONS:

    • Body Movement

    • Pump Blood Throughout body

    • Move food through digestive system

    • Control air movement in and out of the lungs


Muscular system

MUSCULAR SYSTEM


Contraction

CONTRACTION

  • CONTRACTION: Shortening of a muscle.

  • EXTENSION: stretching of a muscle.


Antagonistic

ANTAGONISTIC

  • Muscles work in opposition, while one contracts, the other extends.

  • Antagonistic = work in opposition, muscles do this, so one muscle would be the antagonistic muscle to another one.

  • Examples = bicep/triceps quadriceps/hamstrings


Types of muscles

TYPES of MUSCLES

  • SMOOTH MUSCLE: control movements of internal organs.

    • Involuntary movements…work without conscious control.

    • Intestines, bronchi of the lungs, the bladder.


Types of muscles1

TYPES of MUSCLES…

  • SKELETAL MUSCLE: striped or striated muscles attached to the bones that cause body movement.

    • Biceps, triceps.

    • Largest part of the body’s muscular system.

    • Voluntary movements, conscious control.

    • FLEXORS: muscles that close a joint.

    • EXTENSORS: muscles that open a joint.


Types of muscles2

TYPES of MUSCLES…

  • CARDIAC MUSCLE: striated tissue that forms the wall of the heart.

    • Involuntary muscle.

    • Heart contracts rhythmically about 100,000 times a day.


Care of the muscle system

CARE of the MUSCLE SYSTEM

  • ATROPHY: waste away (“Use it or lose it”)

  • MUSCLE TONE: the natural tension in the fibers of a muscle.

    • Aerobic exercise, resistance training, balanced diet.

    • Older adults…prevent loss of mobility, balance, and risk of falls.

    • The heart is a muscle that needs “training”…regular exercise.

    • Stretching, warm-up, cool down.

    • As always safety.


Problems of the muscular system

PROBLEMS of the MUSCULAR SYSTEM

  • MUSCLE SORENESS:

    damage to the muscle fibers themselves. Muscle biopsies taken on the day after hard exercise show bleeding and disruption of the z-band filaments that hold muscle fibers together as they slide over each other during a contraction.


Problems of the muscular system1

PROBLEMS of the MUSCULAR SYSTEM

  • MYASTHENIA GRAVIS: muscles become weak and easily fatigued.

    • Eye muscles…drooping eyelids and double vision.

  • MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: inherited disorder characterized by a progressive wasting away of skeletal muscles.

    • No cure.


Problems of the muscular system2

PROBLEMS of the MUSCULAR SYSTEM

  • MUSCLE STRAIN:

  • “pulled muscle”, tearing or stretching of muscles fibers as a result of suddenly pulling them to far.


Problems of the muscular system3

PROBLEMS of the MUSCULAR SYSTEM

  • BRUISE: discolored area under the skin caused by a leakage of blood after an injury.

After Femur fracture


Problems of the muscular system4

PROBLEMS of the MUSCULAR SYSTEM

  • TENDINITIS: the inflammation of a tendon, usually caused by overuse.


Problems of the muscular system5

PROBLEMS of the MUSCULAR SYSTEM

  • HERNIA: the protrusion of an organ of tissue through a weak area in the muscle.


Additional information

Additional Information

  • Cartilage = allows smooth movement at a joint – connects the ribs and is a cushion between vertebrae.

  • Ligaments = connect bone to bone at a joint.

  • Tendons = a band of fiber that connects muscles to bones.


What are muscles made of

What are muscles made of?

  • Muscle tissue is

    • ¾ water

    • The remaining ¼ is

      • 20% protein substances

      • 5% nonprotein and mineral substances.


The muscular system

  • What is ATP?

    • Adenosine Triphosphate is a nonprotein chemical substance in muscle tissue. It is a source of immediate energy for muscle contraction.

      What is Glycogen?

      - An organic compound in muscles. Stored in cells and used as the body needs energy.


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