The Cosmic Ray Observatories
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José Fco Valdés-Galicia- PI Octavio Musalem Alejandro Hurtado Luis Xavier Gonzalez Jesús Alvarez PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Cosmic Ray Observatories at IGEF-UNAM. José Fco Valdés-Galicia- PI Octavio Musalem Alejandro Hurtado Luis Xavier Gonzalez Jesús Alvarez Bernardo Vargas Ernesto Ortiz Rocío García Marcos Anzorena. Neutron Monitor And Muon Telescope. Monitor Type 6-NM64

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José Fco Valdés-Galicia- PI Octavio Musalem Alejandro Hurtado Luis Xavier Gonzalez Jesús Alvarez

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Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

The Cosmic Ray Observatories

at IGEF-UNAM

José Fco Valdés-Galicia- PI

Octavio Musalem

Alejandro Hurtado

Luis Xavier Gonzalez

Jesús Alvarez

Bernardo Vargas

Ernesto Ortiz

Rocío García

Marcos Anzorena


Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

Neutron Monitor And Muon Telescope

Monitor Type 6-NM64

Geographic Latitude = 19.33 °

W Longitude = 99.18 °

Altitude (asl) = 2274 m

Cutoff Rigidity = 8.23 GV


Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

AÑO HELIOFÍSICO INTERNACIONAL (Naciones Unidas, 19 de febrero de 2007)

VESO (Instituto de Geofísica UNAM):

RIS Radio Interferómetro Solar (Investigaciones Solares y Planetarias)

MEXART (Mexican Array Radio Telescope)

Radiotelescopio de Centelleo Interplanetario (Física Espacial)

RC Observatorio de Rayos Cósmicos (Investigaciones Solares y Planetarias)

TEO Observatorio Geomagnético de Teoloyucan (Geomagnetismo y Exploración Geofísica)

www.veso.unam.mx


Present status

Present status

  • Online database

    • Five minute data from January 1st., 1997 to September 17, 2008

    • One minute data since September 18, 2008.

      From September 1, 1989 to December 31, 1996 upon request

  • Monthly plots from January 1990 to June 2008


Present status contd

Present status (contd’)

  • With the exception of a few bugs, data are verified and available on real time.

  • All of our data will soon (DEC 2010) be available for download.

  • We are renewing our data acquisition system; the new system will be based on FPGA circuit networks.


Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

EMBEDDED DATA ADQUISITION SYSTEM FOR

COSMIC RAY DETECTION

AMPLIFICATION AND DISCRIMINATION

STAGE

PRESSURE SENSOR

TEMPERTURE SENSOR

FPGA

EMBEDDED DATA ADQUISITION

SYSTEM

USB-I2C INTERFACE

MAX232

INTEGRATED

TIMING SYSTEM

  • Over fifty data acquisition channels

  • Cross platform graphical user interface

  • Adaptable acquisition time for high energy solar events

  • Pulse width measurement for neutron detector


Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

Upgrading our Neutron Monitor

  • We have already six new LND 25373 He3 tubes.

  • We need financial support to acquire:

    - Lead rings.

    - Moderator material.

    - Four high voltage and two low voltage power supplies.

    - Miscellaneous components.


Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

We have another station at Sierra Negra Volcano, 4580m asl

10


Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

SOLAR NEUTRON TELESCOPE

  • Determines neutron energy

  • Directional capabilities

  • Proton, neutron discrimination

PC are veto for protons

Energy is resolved by

peak signal height

Direction is resolved by

lower gondolas

PC in coincidence w/plastic

Scintillators


Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

World Network of Solar Neutron Telescopes

12


Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

Graphical output of the simulation of a vertical impinging neutron of 500 MeV.

■ n + 12CSci → p+ Triggers four PRCs underneath the Sci (marked in red).

■ Production of low energy γby nuclear reaction inside the Sci


Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

Solar Neutron Event on September 7, 2005

■ A strong solar flare occurred on Sept 7 2005

( X17.0, E= 17x10-1 erg cm2 seg-1).

■ Maximum at 17:40 UT (GOES),

17:36:40 (Integral).

■ Sierra Negra, was a suitable site to observe

solar neutrons 11:36:40 LT,

Solar zenith angle ~0°.


Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

■ Clear excesses were recorded by

solar neutron channels, after the

hard X-ray peak time.

■ The statistical significance of the

excesses:

S1_with_anti 16σ,

S2_with_anti 12σ,

S3_with_anti 9.9σ,

S4_with_anti 6.2σ.


Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

a) Simulated solar neutron flux arriving vertically to the telescope

(mid-day incoming flux, zenith angle = 0°).

b) The real proportion of SNT counting rates during the event on Sept 7,

2005 at 17:36:40 UT (11:36:40 LT ~0° of zenith angle).


Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

Sako, et. al., 2006, & Watanabe, et. al., 2007, based on the time evolution profile

observed at Chacaltaya, assuming a power law functional form, calculated the spectral

index α. First using an impulsive injection and then using the 4 MeV gamma ray profile

as injection function.

Sako (2007) used 1 hr (17:30 to 18:30 UT) data from the Sierra Negra SNT, a detector

simulation based on GEANT3, and the atmospheric neutron atenuation calculated

by Shibata (1994) to make an estimate of α.

Spectral index results were:α= 3.1 & 3.2.

Based on GEANT4, the neutron atmospheric atenuation of Dorman & Valdés-Galicia

(1999), and 45 minute data (17:30 to 18:15 UT) from the Sierra Negra SNT,

we recalculated α.


Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

Conclusions for SNT work

■ The angular resolution of our SNT simulation is in very good agreement with real data taken during the event of September 7, 2005, constituting a validation of the simulation code.

■ From the simulation we may conclude that neutrons of ~1 GeV were observed.

■ Protons of at least 10GeV must have been produced. They were not observed as it was an east limb flare.

■ The spectral indexα of the september 7 2005 event is most likely close to 3.


Jos fco vald s galicia pi octavio musalem alejandro hurtado luis xavier gonzalez jes s alvarez

THE FUTURE AT SIERRA NEGRA

PROTOTYPE NEXT WEEK

SSNT, NEXT MARCH IN TONANZINTLA,PUE


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