Mobilizing for War . Again…. Building an Army…. Selective Training and Service Act (1940)- First peacetime draft in U.S. history! At first, men 21-35 had to register. Later men 18-45 were included (up to 65) 16 million Americans served in the military (10 million were draftees)
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Mobilizing for War
Selective Training and Service Act (1940)- First peacetime draft in U.S. history!
At first, men 21-35 had to register. Later men 18-45 were included (up to 65)
16 million Americans served in the military (10 million were draftees)
At one point, 200,000 men were being drafted per month!
1 million African Americans served
300,000 Mexican Americans served
Production boomed factories made guns, jeeps, tanks, ammunition
War Production Board (WPB)- Supervised the conversion of factories to wartime production
Banned production of cars (1942-1946)
Later becomes the Office of War Mobilization (OWM)
Organized scrap drives
Rationing (controlling) amounts of goods available for use
Used ration coupons for coffee, gas, meat, shoes
Large families got more coupons
Office of War Information (OWI)- kept public aware of government policies
Warned of German and Japanese spies!
Government increased taxes- Everyone paid for the first time! (paid 40% of our expenses)
Sold war bonds (borrowed the rest)
Went to work!!- 19 million women went to work in factories, agriculture, transportation, office work, government jobs
300,000 women in the Armed forces
Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)
Women’s Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs)
Helped run communications, flew planes, nurses
African Americans still faced discrimination
A. Philip Randolph- African American labor leader, organized a march on D.C. to protest unfair treatment of African American workers
Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC)- created to prevent discrimination in war industries and government jobs
Mexican Americans also faced discrimination
Braceros- Mexican workers allowed to enter the U.S. to help fill job vacancies
200,000 came to work
Zoot-Suit Riots- June 1943
Sailors and Marines in LA attacked Mexican American men wearing Zoot Suits
Mobs roamed the city attacking men randomly
Benefitted from economic opportunities and higher wages
Continued to face discrimination and unequal treatment
People were very ANGRY after Pearl Harbor!!
Fearing spies and sabotage the U.S. government began the process of internment in 1942
Government forcibly relocated and imprisoned Japanese Americans
Moved to camps and kept under guard