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AMERICAN HISTORY. CHAPTER 23 WORLD WAR II ERUPTS CH. 23-1 THE RISE OF DICTATORS. EUROPE AFTER WORLD WAR I. Economic problems, social change, and the threat of communism helped produce a RED SCARE—a fear of aliens and radicals European economy was in ruins PROBLEMS WITH PEACE

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American history

AMERICAN HISTORY

CHAPTER 23 WORLD WAR II ERUPTSCH. 23-1 THE RISE OF DICTATORS


Europe after world war i
EUROPE AFTER WORLD WAR I

  • Economic problems, social change, and the threat of communism helped produce a RED SCARE—a fear of aliens and radicals

  • European economy was in ruins

  • PROBLEMS WITH PEACE

  • Treaty of Versailles brought the war to an end

  • Many European nations dissatisfied with result



  • Germany had to give up large industrial areas

  • Germany had to pay large war reparations

  • Early 1920s—severe inflation occurred (hyperinflation) (chart p. 739)

  • Communists and Socialists tried to take control of Germany 1918-1919 but failed

  • Germany established a democratic government

  • Weimar (VY-mahr) Republic


  • Not a very strong government

  • Opposition from political far left—Communists—and the far right, which was antidemocratic

  • German military was reduced in size and power


Totalitarian leaders arise
TOTALITARIAN LEADERS ARISE

  • New leaders began to emerge in Europe

  • They reflected to people’s bitterness and anger

  • They promised a return to greatness

  • Their vision was so appealing that people were willing to give up basic freedoms in return for hope of future glory


  • MUSSOLINI AND THE BIRTH OF FASCISM

  • Benito Mussolini (Italy)--socialist

  • Unlike most socialists, he supported Italy’s entry into WWI

  • By wars end, he had move to the far right of Italian politics and strongly opposed socialism and communism

  • Founded a new Italian political party—the National Fascist Party


  • FASCIST—comes from a latin word for “a bundle of rods tied together”

  • Ancient Romans used this bundle as a symbol of their state

  • Romans thought a single rod could be broken but a bundle of rods was very strong

  • Mussolini thought that FASCISM was a system of government that stressed the glory of the state


  • Slogan—”Everything in the State, nothing outside the state”

  • Rights and concerns of individuals were of little importance

  • Mussolini used a dynamic speaking ability to win a seat in Parliament

  • 1922—He became leader of the government

  • Mussolini established a DICTATORSHIP—government by a leader or group that holds unchallenged power


  • He did not allow other political parties and he crushed opponents

  • His government controlled newspapers, schools, and businesses

  • All power flowed through Mussolini

  • He was referred to as “IL DUCE”—the leader

  • TOTALITARIAN REGIME—Mussolini controlled everyday life in Italy


  • HITLER’S RISE TO POWER opponents

  • Born in Austria

  • Rejected by the Austrian military because they thought he was to weak to carry a weapon

  • He volunteered with the German army in WWI and built a solid record as a soldier

  • He joined a small political party known as the National Socialists, or Nazis


  • It was during this period that Hitler found his talent for public speaking

  • 1923—organized an effort to seize power in Germany by force

  • Hitler arrested and sentenced to 5 years in prison—he served 9 months

  • In prison he produced a book entitled MEIN KAMPF (My Struggle)

  • Hitler stressed nationalism and devotion to state


  • In Mein public speakingKampf Hitler expressed a belief in the racial superiority of Germanic peoples that he called Aryans

  • He blamed Jews for many of Germany’s problems

  • He said Jews threatened the purity of the Aryan race

  • After prison Hitler wanted to gain power through peaceful means


  • 1933—Nazi Party was the most powerful in Germany public speaking

  • Hitler became Germany’s chancellor

  • Now he pushed to become a totalitarian dictator

  • Using political skill and violence he eliminated opponents

  • Hitler began a secret build-up of the military


  • OTHER REGIMES public speaking

  • Civil war erupted in Spain in 1930s

  • This brought Fascist general Fransisco Franco to power

  • In the Soviet Union communism was already established when Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s

  • Stalin violently crushed opponents

  • Towns and cities were renamed after him and portraits were displayed everywhere



Totalitarian governments and military force
TOTALITARIAN GOVERNMENTS AND MILITARY FORCE the government

  • A common feature of the leaders of this time was their willingness to use violence to gain power

  • JAPAN AND MANCHURIA

  • A major problem in Japan was lack of space

  • Japan was led by a civilian government but people were unhappy



  • ITALY INVADES ETHIOPIA of Manchuria without government approval

  • The weakness of the League of Nations was evident when Italy invaded Ethiopia

  • Ethiopia was unable to resist

  • Leader HaileSelassie asked the League for help

  • The League failed or refused to act

  • American leaders spoke out against Italy

  • President Franklin Roosevelt was unwilling to take any other formal action


  • THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR of Manchuria without government approval

  • 1930s—political turmoil in Spain

  • Left (Communists) vs. Right (Fascists & Nationalists)

  • 1936—conflict led to civil war

  • War attracted involvement from other countries in Europe and North America

  • Italy and Germany sent forces on the side of the Nationalists

  • Soviet Union and United States helped the other side (aka The Republicans)


  • The fighting was brutal of Manchuria without government approval

  • Hundreds of thousands of people died

  • This included several hundred American volunteers

  • 1939—Franco’s Nationalists defeated the Republicans

  • Spain was now under control of a fascist dictator


Hitler takes action
HITLER TAKES ACTION of Manchuria without government approval

  • Hitler openly stated his plan to re-arm Germany in violation of the Treaty of Versailles

  • Hitler managed to convince Great Britain and France to tolerate his actions

  • 1935—Britain allowed Germany to rebuild their navy & submarines

  • Hitler claimed the military was needed to resist communism


  • MILITARIZING THE RHINELAND of Manchuria without government approval

  • Under the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was required to keep its troops out of the area in the Rhine River valley along the French border

  • 1936—Germany violated the treaty by sending in troops

  • Hitler claimed a recent military agreement between France and the Soviet Union threatened Germany


  • France was alarmed about the German troops of Manchuria without government approval

  • Britain had no interest in going to war over German troops

  • Hitler grew bolder

  • THE ANSCHLUSS

  • 1938—Hitler took action to gain control of Austria

  • He dreamed of uniting all ethnic Germans including Austrians



  • His next move was to control of a German-speaking section of Czechoslovakia called the Sudentenland

  • He urged Germans to protest Czech rule

  • Then he threatened a military attack

  • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French Premier Edouard Daladier met with Hitler in Munich to avoid a crisis

  • Britain and France allowed Hitler to annex the Sudentenland



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