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CHAPTER 23 WORLD WAR II ERUPTS CH. 23-1 THE RISE OF DICTATORS

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AMERICAN HISTORY. CHAPTER 23 WORLD WAR II ERUPTS CH. 23-1 THE RISE OF DICTATORS. EUROPE AFTER WORLD WAR I. Economic problems, social change, and the threat of communism helped produce a RED SCARE—a fear of aliens and radicals European economy was in ruins PROBLEMS WITH PEACE

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europe after world war i
EUROPE AFTER WORLD WAR I
  • Economic problems, social change, and the threat of communism helped produce a RED SCARE—a fear of aliens and radicals
  • European economy was in ruins
  • PROBLEMS WITH PEACE
  • Treaty of Versailles brought the war to an end
  • Many European nations dissatisfied with result
slide3

France had hoped the treaty would severely weaken Germany

  • Italy had hope to gain territory because they were on the winning side but they were ignored
  • GERMAN OUTRAGE
  • German people & military were humiliated
slide4

Germany had to give up large industrial areas

  • Germany had to pay large war reparations
  • Early 1920s—severe inflation occurred (hyperinflation) (chart p. 739)
  • Communists and Socialists tried to take control of Germany 1918-1919 but failed
  • Germany established a democratic government
  • Weimar (VY-mahr) Republic
slide5

Not a very strong government

  • Opposition from political far left—Communists—and the far right, which was antidemocratic
  • German military was reduced in size and power
totalitarian leaders arise
TOTALITARIAN LEADERS ARISE
  • New leaders began to emerge in Europe
  • They reflected to people’s bitterness and anger
  • They promised a return to greatness
  • Their vision was so appealing that people were willing to give up basic freedoms in return for hope of future glory
slide7

MUSSOLINI AND THE BIRTH OF FASCISM

  • Benito Mussolini (Italy)--socialist
  • Unlike most socialists, he supported Italy’s entry into WWI
  • By wars end, he had move to the far right of Italian politics and strongly opposed socialism and communism
  • Founded a new Italian political party—the National Fascist Party
slide8

FASCIST—comes from a latin word for “a bundle of rods tied together”

  • Ancient Romans used this bundle as a symbol of their state
  • Romans thought a single rod could be broken but a bundle of rods was very strong
  • Mussolini thought that FASCISM was a system of government that stressed the glory of the state
slide9

Slogan—”Everything in the State, nothing outside the state”

  • Rights and concerns of individuals were of little importance
  • Mussolini used a dynamic speaking ability to win a seat in Parliament
  • 1922—He became leader of the government
  • Mussolini established a DICTATORSHIP—government by a leader or group that holds unchallenged power
slide10

He did not allow other political parties and he crushed opponents

  • His government controlled newspapers, schools, and businesses
  • All power flowed through Mussolini
  • He was referred to as “IL DUCE”—the leader
  • TOTALITARIAN REGIME—Mussolini controlled everyday life in Italy
slide11

HITLER’S RISE TO POWER

  • Born in Austria
  • Rejected by the Austrian military because they thought he was to weak to carry a weapon
  • He volunteered with the German army in WWI and built a solid record as a soldier
  • He joined a small political party known as the National Socialists, or Nazis
slide12

It was during this period that Hitler found his talent for public speaking

  • 1923—organized an effort to seize power in Germany by force
  • Hitler arrested and sentenced to 5 years in prison—he served 9 months
  • In prison he produced a book entitled MEIN KAMPF (My Struggle)
  • Hitler stressed nationalism and devotion to state
slide13

In Mein Kampf Hitler expressed a belief in the racial superiority of Germanic peoples that he called Aryans

  • He blamed Jews for many of Germany’s problems
  • He said Jews threatened the purity of the Aryan race
  • After prison Hitler wanted to gain power through peaceful means
slide14

1933—Nazi Party was the most powerful in Germany

  • Hitler became Germany’s chancellor
  • Now he pushed to become a totalitarian dictator
  • Using political skill and violence he eliminated opponents
  • Hitler began a secret build-up of the military
slide15

OTHER REGIMES

  • Civil war erupted in Spain in 1930s
  • This brought Fascist general Fransisco Franco to power
  • In the Soviet Union communism was already established when Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s
  • Stalin violently crushed opponents
  • Towns and cities were renamed after him and portraits were displayed everywhere
slide16

In Japan military leaders used violence to gain control of the government

  • They were inspired by nationalistic dreams of greatness that would lead to war
totalitarian governments and military force
TOTALITARIAN GOVERNMENTS AND MILITARY FORCE
  • A common feature of the leaders of this time was their willingness to use violence to gain power
  • JAPAN AND MANCHURIA
  • A major problem in Japan was lack of space
  • Japan was led by a civilian government but people were unhappy
slide18

1931—Some Japanese generals invaded the Chinese province of Manchuria without government approval

  • The government ordered the military to stop but the order was ignored
  • The League of Nations strongly criticized Japan so Japan simply withdrew from the League
slide19

ITALY INVADES ETHIOPIA

  • The weakness of the League of Nations was evident when Italy invaded Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia was unable to resist
  • Leader HaileSelassie asked the League for help
  • The League failed or refused to act
  • American leaders spoke out against Italy
  • President Franklin Roosevelt was unwilling to take any other formal action
slide20

THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR

  • 1930s—political turmoil in Spain
  • Left (Communists) vs. Right (Fascists & Nationalists)
  • 1936—conflict led to civil war
  • War attracted involvement from other countries in Europe and North America
  • Italy and Germany sent forces on the side of the Nationalists
  • Soviet Union and United States helped the other side (aka The Republicans)
slide21

The fighting was brutal

  • Hundreds of thousands of people died
  • This included several hundred American volunteers
  • 1939—Franco’s Nationalists defeated the Republicans
  • Spain was now under control of a fascist dictator
hitler takes action
HITLER TAKES ACTION
  • Hitler openly stated his plan to re-arm Germany in violation of the Treaty of Versailles
  • Hitler managed to convince Great Britain and France to tolerate his actions
  • 1935—Britain allowed Germany to rebuild their navy & submarines
  • Hitler claimed the military was needed to resist communism
slide23

MILITARIZING THE RHINELAND

  • Under the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was required to keep its troops out of the area in the Rhine River valley along the French border
  • 1936—Germany violated the treaty by sending in troops
  • Hitler claimed a recent military agreement between France and the Soviet Union threatened Germany
slide24

France was alarmed about the German troops

  • Britain had no interest in going to war over German troops
  • Hitler grew bolder
  • THE ANSCHLUSS
  • 1938—Hitler took action to gain control of Austria
  • He dreamed of uniting all ethnic Germans including Austrians
slide25

1938—Hitler tried to force the Austrian government to agree to ANSCHLUSS—union with Germany

  • Austria refused
  • Hitler sent troops into the country
  • THE SUDENTENLAND
  • Hitler was confident no one would stop him
slide26

His next move was to control of a German-speaking section of Czechoslovakia called the Sudentenland

  • He urged Germans to protest Czech rule
  • Then he threatened a military attack
  • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French Premier Edouard Daladier met with Hitler in Munich to avoid a crisis
  • Britain and France allowed Hitler to annex the Sudentenland
slide27

Czechoslovakia was not represented at the meeting and protested

  • Chamberlain boasted of having achieving “peace for our time.”
  • In reality, the world was on the verge of war
  • THE END
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