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Rationalism. Ali Pinkerton. Rationalism- (Latin- ratio , reason) -a theory of knowledge -Ideas and concepts are INDEPENDENT of experience/emotion -Truth is discovered through ONLY reason -Ball example. Definition. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RvlnG1923bs.

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rationalism

Rationalism

Ali Pinkerton

definition

Rationalism-

(Latin- ratio, reason)

-a theory of knowledge

-Ideas and concepts are INDEPENDENT of experience/emotion

-Truth is discovered through ONLY reason

-Ball example

Definition

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RvlnG1923bs

beginnings

Renaissance/ Scientific Revolution

  • Believed in logic and reason, but also supported experimentation and scientific method
  • Rejecting philosophies of Bible and Aristotle

- geocentric universe, etc.

  • Important milestones in rejection and development:

(1543) Copernicus- heliocentric universe

(1572) Brahe- stars not stationary/unchanging

(1609) Kepler- laws of planetary motion

(1638) Galileo- Math. Discourse, X Aristotle

(1687) Newton- Principia, gravity

Beginnings

Renowned Rationalists:

-Rene Descartes

-Benedict Spinoza

-Gottfried Liebniz

rene descartes

Cartesian Method

  • Accept nothing as true which is not clear and distinct.
  • Analyze a problem into parts and discuss it part by part.
  • Arrange thoughts from simple to complex as the order of study.
  • Enumerations must be full and complete and nothing must be omitted.

Applied proofs to philosophy, e.g. to prove existence of God.

Rene Descartes

1596-1650

Philosopher, Mathematician

cornerstones

A priori knowledge

“Prior to” (before experience)

self-evident truths, definitions

4+3= 7, parents have children

  • Innate Knowledge

ideas people have from birth

can exist without proof

Descartes- “God exists.”

  • Logical Necessity

must exist because it could not be otherwise

To walk, you must have legs.

Contrast with empirical necessity (study to pass test)

Cornerstones
necessity

If you can see out of a house, it has a window.

vs.

  • Houses have windows.
  • Criticism

Not all things are either possible or impossible. (God exists.)

Abstract ideas do not always yield actual truths. (island example)

Necessity
rationalism in crime punishment

Raskolnikov

-Rational mindset (justifies killing woman, using “paces”)

-Monologues resemble geometric proofs

-“The old woman was only an illness… I was in a hurry to overstep… I didn’t kill a human being, but a principle! I killed the principle, but I didn’t overstep, I stopped on this side… I was only capable of killing.” (275)

  • Marmeladov

-Part I, Chapter II: rationalizing and making justification for his drinking

- By looking at facts and not experience (how his drinking affects his family) he can eschew the problem.

- “I try to find sympathy and feeling in drink. I drink so that I may suffer twice as much.” (14)

  • Dostoevsky

- Many say C&P is his criticism of rationalism

- Showing bad fates of characters whose philosophies and behaviors are based in rationalism.

Rationalism in Crime & Punishment

Raskolnikov

Marmeladov

Dostoevsky