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Module 1: Introduction to Animal Emergency Management for Veterinary Professionals Module 2: Bio-Defense and Zoonoses

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Module 1: Introduction to Animal Emergency Management forVeterinary ProfessionalsModule 2: Bio-Defense and Zoonoses

Module 1: Introduction to Animal Emergency Management for Veterinary Professionals

To provide an overview of the knowledge, skills and abilities that enable veterinary professionals to effectively participate in the Colorado Veterinary Medical Reserve Corps and local animal emergency response programs.


Target Audience

  • Veterinarians

  • Certified Veterinary Technicians

  • Students

    • Veterinary medical

    • Veterinary technology

  • Support staff

    • Veterinary assistants

    • Hospital administrators/managers

    • Animal professionals

COVMRC Training Program

  • FEMA IS 100 and IS 700

  • Unit 1: Overview of animal emergency management for veterinary professionals

  • Unit 2: Bio-defense and biological risk management

  • Unit 3: Overview of CBRNE hazards for veterinary professionals

  • Unit 4: Personal preparedness and business contingency planning

Under What Authority Does CO VMRC Operate?

  • Homeland Security Presidential Directive 9

    • Designates agriculture and food systems as critical infrastructures

    • Directs federal agencies to take specific steps to protect food and agricultural systems

Pet Evacuation and Transportation Act of 2006-signed into law October 2006 (PETS Act)

Stafford Act amendment

Requires state and local plans for household pets and service animals

Allows FEMA cost-sharing for services in support of people with household pets and service animals

Allows FEMA director to make contributions for preparedness

Animal Populations (Mission Areas)

  • Companion animals

  • Production livestock and poultry

  • Backyard livestock and poultry

  • Service/assistance animals

  • Law enforcement/search and rescue animals

  • Laboratory animals

  • Captive wildlife

  • Native wildlife

What are the animal and agricultural concerns in disasters?

  • Public safety

  • Public and animal health

  • Agro-security

  • Animal welfare

  • Service/police animals

  • Wildlife/environment

Public Safety Impacts

People will risk their lives to protect animals

Can put themselves and responders at risk

Redeployment of law enforcement resources

This is not just a companion animal issue

Operation Pet Rescue: 1996 Weyauwega, Wisconsin

Public Health and Zoonosis

Public health and animal health issues intersect broadly

Veterinary professionals are essential in addressing zoonotic disease issues during disasters

A zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from non-human animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to non-human animals.

Examples of Zoonotic Diseases


West Nile Virus










Q Fever

Gram positive bipolar-staining organisms of Yersinia pestis

Priority Biological Agents Category A Diseases

Easily transmitted to people, with high morbidity and mortality rates.

  • Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)

  • Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)*

  • Plague (Yersinia pestis)

  • Smallpox (Variola major)*

  • Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers ( Lassa fever, Hantavirus, Rift Valley fever, Dengue,Ebola, Marburg viruses)

Category B Diseases

Transmitted to people with moderate morbidity and low mortality rates.

  • Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei)

  • Brucellosis (Brucella species)

  • Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii)

  • Glanders (Burkholderia mallei)

  • Typhus fever (Rickettsia prowazekii)

  • Toxins Staphylococcal, Clostridial, Ricin

  • Food and water-borne pathogens

Category C Diseases

Emerging and exotic infectious disease threats

  • Nipah virus

  • Hanta Virus

  • Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever virus

  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus

  • Yellow fever

  • Influenza virus (H5N1, H1N1)

  • Rabies virus

  • Tuberculosis (multi drug resistant strains)

Animal Agriculture as a Critical Infrastructure

  • Basic necessities:

    • Food/water

    • Shelter

    • Warmth

  • Food supply systems

    • Vulnerable at multiple points

    • Critical “farm to fork” food pipeline

  • Economic impacts

  • Non-economic impacts

United States Agricultural Economy

  • US tops world in food production

  • World’s largest exporter of agricultural products

  • Animal agriculture >$100 billion

  • Crop agriculture >$100 billion

  • 17% of jobs connected to food/agriculture

  • 13% of gross domestic product

  • <<10% of income goes to buy food

Service Animals

Seeing-eye dogs

Hearing assistance

Hospital visits

Mobility assistance

Medical warning


Medical detection

Mental health therapy

Law Enforcement and Emergency Response Animals



Drug and explosive detection

Search and rescue



Crowd control

Captive/Concentrated Animal Populations

laboratory animals

zoos, sanctuaries, wildlife parks

commercial breeding/pet retail

kennels/veterinary hospitals

Native Wildlife

Impacts on critical environments or endangered species

Impacts of animal diseases

  • Brucellosis (Yellowstone)

  • Foot and Mouth Disease

  • West Nile Virus

  • H1N1 (Swine Flu)

Animals in the State of Colorado

Colorado (2002 estimate) 4.5+ million people

1.82 million households

Up to 60% of households with pets

2.5 animals per household

2.7+ million dogs, cats, and birds

Add rabbits, rodents, ferrets, reptiles, etc.

Colorado Horses and Other Livestock Species

Horses: 145,000-225,000+

All Cattle: 2,400,000

Mature dairy cows: 98,000

Mature beef cows: 710,000

Sheep & goats: 420,000+

Poultry: <20,000,000 (variable)

Swine: 770,000

Captive deer, elk, bison

Llamas, alpacas

Emu, ostrich




Threats of all types


People, property of systems that are subject to hazards


Degree of potential impact


Overall sum of hazard, vulnerability, and consequence

Colorado Weather Hazards

  • Tornado

  • Blizzard

  • Ice storms

  • Hail

  • Wind

  • Lightning

  • Mudslide

  • Avalanche

  • Floods

  • Drought (wildfire)

Geological Hazards


Trinidad area 2001, series with largest at 4.6

Rocky Mountain National Park

November 7, 1882

Estimated near 6.2 Richter

Latest estimates max impact=

$24 billion damages, 800 fatalities

Volcanic eruption

Mount Saint Helens

Tsunami (Pacific coastal)


Natural, Accidental, Intentional

Low to high impact

Usually April-October

Risk magnified by large wilderness-urban interface areas

2002 Colorado wildfire season

Wildfires are a threat every year

Animal Welfare Emergencies

Animal “hoarders” and large-scale cruelty

Dozens or even hundreds of animals kept under terrible conditions

May exceed local capacity to provide care

Other Hazards


Hazardous Chemical spills/releases

Nuclear/radiological hazards

Infrastructure failure

Power blackouts, dams, bridges, buildings

Accidental explosions

Transportation accidents

Major urban fires

Intentional Threats




People, animals, crops




Extortion, hoaxes and fraud

Market manipulation

Animal Emergency Management Systems

Emergency Management Priorities

Protection of human life/health

Protection of property

Protection of the environment

For many people, animals are the top property priority

Providing animal emergency management services allows all of these priorities to be achieved

All-Hazards Emergency Management

Flexible to adapt to all emergency situations

Standardized to improve overall response and interoperability.





National Incident Management System

Homeland Security Presidential Directive – 5

Directed the development of a National Incident Management System and a new National Response Framework

National Incident Management System

“…a consistent nationwide approach for federal, state, tribal, and local governments to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity.”

National Response Framework

The National Response Framework is built on the template of the National Incident Management System. It provides the structure and mechanisms for coordinating federal support to state, local and tribal incident managers … and for exercising direct federal authorities and responsibilities.

  • NIMS

  • Aligns command, control, organization structure, terminology, communication protocols and resources/resource-typing

  • Used for all events



  • NRF

  • Integrates and applies federal resources, knowledge, and abilities before, during and after incidents

  • Activated for Incidents of National Significance


Command and Management


Resource Management

Communications and Information Management

Supporting Technologies

Ongoing Management and Maintenance

Components of NIMS

Incident Commander

Safety Officer

Liaison Officer

Information Officer









Basic ICS Command Structure

IS-100 Incident Command Systems

Statutory Authority

Legal Authority is basis for incident command

Local animal authorities

Law enforcement

Animal control

Public health

Emergency management

State animal authorities

State veterinarian

Public health

Emergency management

Wildlife agencies

Public safety

Federal animal authorities

USDA: livestock diseases

HHS: public health impacts

DHS: emergency management

DOJ: Terrorism

Colorado’s 9 Homeland

Security Regions

Multi-Agency Coordination: National Response Plan Emergency Support Functions (ESF)

ESF1: Transportation

ESF2: Communications

ESF3: Public works and engineering

ESF4: Firefighting

ESF5: Emergency management

ESF6: Mass care, housing, and human services

ESF7: Resource support

ESF8: Public health and medical services

ESF9: Urban search and rescue

ESF10: Oil and hazardous materials response

ESF11: Agriculture and natural resources

ESF12: Energy

ESF13: Public safety and security

ESF14: Long term community recovery and mitigation

ESF15: External affairs

State Multi-Agency Coordination











& Distribution




Animal/Agricultural Emergency Issues










Enforcement &












Public Works



Response Originates on the Local Level

Multi-agency coordination

Plan development

Interoperable communications

Resource development

Equipment & supplies





Citizen preparedness

Local Multi-Agency Coordination

  • Local Emergency Managers

  • Animal care and Control agencies

  • Law Enforcement

  • Brand Inspectors

  • Veterinary Community

  • CSU Extension

  • Animal Related industry

  • Fairgrounds

  • Livestock Associations

  • Kennels and pet Service Providers

  • Livestock Producers

  • Pet Breed Rescue and Associations

  • Community Public Health

  • Fire and EMS

  • County Mapping

  • Wildlife Agencies and Zoos

  • Concerned Individuals


Local Planning Matrix for Animal Issues

Table of functions vs. community resources

Combine with risk assessment

Basis for building a written response plan

Veterinary Care





Animal control

Animal shelter

Veterinary Prof.

  • lead (L)

  • unified lead (U)

  • support (S)


Livestock Assn.

Veterinary Specific Roles

  • Triage

  • Veterinary clinical care

    • Field care

    • Hospital care

    • Mass casualty care

    • Euthanasia

  • Biological risk management

  • Public health/medical support

  • Foreign animal disease support

Animal Disease Mission Tasks

  • Diagnosis

  • Quarantine

  • Surveillance

  • Epidemiology

  • Mortality management

  • Decontamination

  • Permits

  • Bio-security/compliance

  • Outreach/education

  • Mental health issues

  • Repopulation/recovery

Goal is agricultural system continuity


  • Animal safety, security and bio-security

  • Identification and recordkeeping

    • Proof of ownership

  • Shelter situations

    • Permanent +/- expansion

    • Temporary

    • Temporary co-located

  • Co-shelter with people shelters is preferred

Animal Search and Rescue (ASAR)

  • NRF will provide:

    • ESF#9 (USAR) lead for rescuing people with animals

    • ESF#11 (ASAR) lead for rescue of animals

  • Need standardized training, typing, credentialing

Mental Health: Animal Issues for Victims

General emotional trauma


Emotional attachment to animals


Housing and care concerns


Animals may be missing or status unknown


Human and animal

Livestock depopulation impacts



  • We will take a 10 minute break….

Module 2: Bio-Defense and Zoonoses


  • Define terms related to bio-defense

  • List basic disease transmission routes

  • Give examples of Zoonotic agents

  • List examples of high consequence/emerging diseases

  • Describe hand hygiene/barrier protection

  • Identify basics of cleaning and disinfection

  • Identify the components of a biological risk management plan

  • Give examples of agricultural bio-security

  • List veterinary emergency biologic risk management/infection control roles

  • Discuss current H1N1 situation


  • Bio-defense

  • Bio-security

  • Biological risk management

  • Infection Control

  • Zoonoses

  • Reportable disease

  • Foreign animal disease

  • Animal health emergency

  • Agro-terrorism

  • Agro-security

Bio-Defense, Bio-Security, Biological Risk Management

  • Bio-Defense

    • Protecting a nation, industry, or facility from high-impact biological threats

  • Bio-Security

    • Steps taken at a facility or agency to prevent the introduction, export, or internal spread of disease agents

  • Biological Risk Management (BRM)

    • Comprehensive evaluation of risks and mitigation actions to minimize biological risks to an acceptable level

  • Infection Control (IC)

    • Procedures to limit spread of infectious agents

    • Term commonly used in human health care





  • Bio-exclusion:

    • Keeping infectious organisms from entering a facility or population

  • Bio-containment

    • Keeping infectious organisms from leaving a facility or population

Zoonotic and Reportable Diseases

  • Reportable Diseases

    • Foreign animal disease or endemic (native) diseases that must be reported to state or federal authorities.

  • Zoonotic Diseases

    • Diseases that infect both animals and people

      • Spread between people and animals

      • Infected by the same vector

A vector is an insect or any living carrier that transmits an infectious agent. Vectors are vehicles by which infections are transmitted from one host to another.

Foreign Animal Diseases (FAD)

Specific animal or Zoonotic diseases that:

  • Are not normally present in the United States

  • Must be reported to state and/or federal authorities

  • Are reportable to the World Health Organization

  • Will impact livestock industries

  • Will impact international trade

Foreign Animal Diseases of Highest Importance to the U.S.

Avian Influenza*Exotic Newcastle Disease*

BSE (Mad Cow)Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

Foot and Mouth Disease*Heartwater

Lumpy Skin DiseaseMalignant Catarrhal Fever

Rift Valley FeverRinderpest*

Goat and Sheep PoxPeste de pestis ruminants

African Horse Sickness*Contagious Equine Metritis


African Swine Fever*Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera)*

Swine Vesicular DiseaseVesicular Exanthema of Swine


Equine Encephalomyelitis = West Nile Fever, Eastern, Western, & Venezuelan*

* Pose the greatest threat to the U.S.

Animal Health Emergency

  • The state veterinarian activates the state emergency operations plan concerning animal diseases

  • Foreign animal disease or a high-impact endemic disease

  • May be accidental, natural, or intentional

Agro-Terrorism and Agro-Security

  • Agro-Terrorism

    • A criminal act involving intentional harm to agriculture through a biological, explosive, chemical, radiological, incendiary, or explosive attack.

  • Agro-Security

    • Comprehensive actions to protect agricultural from both intentional CBRNE threats as well as natural or accidental events, including diseases.


Society has changed

  • More people have contact with animals today than they did a century ago

  • Early 19th century 40% of the population were involved with agriculture

  • Today less than 2% are involved with agriculture

  • 60% households have at least one kind of pet

What is a Zoonotic disease?

The simplest definition of a zoonosis is a diseasethat can be transmitted from one vertebrate animal to another.

Another definition is a disease that normally infects animals, but can also be transmitted to humans.

Of the 1,407 known human disease pathogens, 816 (58%) are Zoonotic diseases.

Case Example: Monkey Pox Virus

Reportable foreign animal disease

Spread animal-to-human via blood or bite

Human-to-human spread possible

Similar in appearance to smallpox but milder

Also affects other species such as rodents

Wisconsin 2003, 7 confirmed, 34 suspect human cases

Case Example 2: Q Fever

  • Rickettsia - Coxiella burnettii

  • Cattle, sheep, goats reservoirs

  • Asymptomatic in animalsAbortion in sheep, goats

  • One organism may cause infection

  • Inhalation most common

  • Unpasteurized milk, soft cheeses

  • Flu-like symptoms in people

Case Example: H1N1

  • Orthomyxo virus - influenza A virus

  • Reassortment of avian, pig and human genotypes in H1N1

  • Zoonotic disease – mostly human to animals

H1N1 Influenza A







Common Zoonotic Disease Risks in Small Animal Facilities

  • Rabies

  • Fungal diseases

  • Cat scratch fever

  • Larval migrans

  • Salmonellosis

  • Plague

  • Tularemia

  • Influenza ?

  • Psittacosis

  • Toxoplasmosis

Biological Risk Management (BRM)Infection Control

Identification and handling of animals, animal waste, and diagnostic specimens to minimize risk of transmission of disease to people and/or other animals

Disaster Bio-Safety Procedures

An extension of facility procedures

Veterinary hospitals

Animal shelters




Veterinary planning

and implementation


Infection Control Plans

A written set of policies and procedures that communicate to the CO VMRC how the unit will manage infectious disease risks to people and animals.

  • Scope

  • Planning assumptions

  • Bio-safety practices

  • Unit training

  • Community/client outreach

  • Plan maintenance

  • Appendices/references

Planning Assumptions

It is necessary for the CO VMRC to have a BRM/IC plan.

  • Protection of all unit members, clients, animals and facilities - Right to Know

  • Reportable diseases

  • Standard of care and liability issues

  • New or emerging diseases may be recognized first in animals (e.g. West Nile Virus)

  • Bioterrorism may impact both people and animals


  • Anaplasmosis (Clinical Disease Only)

  • Anthrax

  • Avian Influenza (Both high or low pathogenic)

  • Brucellosis (Bovine, Porcine, Ovine, or *Canine)

  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)

  • Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)

  • Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)

  • Equine Encephalomyelitis (reportable to CO Dept. Public Health)

  • Equine Infectious Anemia (Positive Coggins/ELISA)

  • Equine Viral Arteritis

  • Equine Herpes Virus type 1 (Neurological form of Equine Rhinopneumonitis)

  • Malignant Catarrhal Fever

  • Mycoplasmagallisepticum or synoviae

  • Paratuberculosis (Johne’s Disease)

  • * Plague (reportable to CO Dept. Public Health)

  • * Psittacosis (reportable to CO Dept. Public Health)

  • Pseudorabies

  • * Rabies (reportable to CO Dept. Public Health)

  • Salmonella (pullorum or enteritidis)

  • Scabies (Cattle or Sheep)

  • Scrapie

  • Trichomoniasis

  • Tuberculosis

  • * Tularemia (reportable to CO Dept. Public Health)

  • Vesicular Stomatitis, All Species

  • Vesicular Diseases of all species

  • West Nile Virus

  • *- diseases of interest to small animal practitioners

  • Date Last Reviewed: July 23, 2008


If an animal dies acutely and was exhibiting clinical signs of a reportable disease this incident shall be reported even though no diagnostic

testing was accomplished prior to death.

Right to Know Laws

  • Applies to hazards potentially encountered by the unit and the general public

  • Allows optimal health care of patients (healthy and diseased)

  • Optimal protection of people

Risk Assessment

  • What are the key biological threats that the CO VMRC might face?

    • Animal diseases

    • Zoonotic diseases

    • Human diseases (members and clients)

  • What are the vulnerabilities?

    • Cages, kennels

    • Common areas

    • Treatment outside of a facility

    • Eating areas for staff

    • Visitors entering restricted areas

Bio-Safety Practices

  • Risk recognition

  • Traffic flow

  • Isolation procedures

  • Hand hygiene policies

  • Barrier protection

  • Sanitation procedures

  • Bite procedures

  • Rabies prophylaxis

  • Other

Biologic Risk Recognition

Which diseases do we worry about recognizing early?


Highly contagious

Highly persistent

Significant clinical consequences

Regulatory concern


Keep high risk animals isolated

Traffic flow and isolation

Biological Threats

Viruses (Rift valley fever)

Bacteria (strep, salmonella)

Fungi (yeast, mold)

Prions (mad cow disease)

Bio-toxins (red tide, Ricin)

Disease Transmission Routes

Droplet contact - coughing or sneezing on another person

Direct physical contact - touching an infected person, including sexual contact

Indirect contact - usually by touching soil contamination or a contaminated surface

Airborne transmission - if the microorganism can remain in the air for long periods

Fecal-oral transmission - usually from contaminated food or water sources

Vector borne transmission - carried by insects or other animals

Some diseases may use multiple routes of transmission

Risk Recognition Tools

  • Entry recognition

    • Screening when animal arrives at site

  • Routing infectious cases away from well animals

  • Isolation

  • Keeping visitors out of restricted areas

Risk recognition starts as soon as the animal is brought to the CO VMRC…

For example- if the animal has a history or obvious signs of GI or respiratory disease, move the animal into an isolation area ASAP

Example: Plague Risk Recognition

  • Sick outdoor/hunter cat = plague on the radar

  • Recognition

    • High fever, depression

    • Lymph node enlargement or abscess

    • +/-respiratory signs

    • Inflammatory leukogram

    • Cytology

Additional plague precautions:

  • Protective measures

    • Gloves, mask*, barrier gowns worn immediately (inhalant and contact danger)

    • Individuals with specified risks (pregnancy, immune compromise) relieved of case management

    • Contact limited to attending clinician and one other staff

    • Medical waste handled as hazardous

* Respiratory protection must meet OSHA/CDC guidelines with a minimum of N-95

Hand Hygiene

May be the single most important bio-safety practice!

Major challenge is compliance

Reasons for noncompliance include

Lack of time to do the “right thing”

Impact of hand hygiene practices on skin condition

Improve compliance by adding hand sanitizing gels to program

Methods of Hand Hygiene

  • Broad categories

    • Surgical scrub=gold standard

    • Hand washing

      • Regular soap

      • Antibacterial soap

    • Alcohol gels

    • Alcohol liquid

    • Chlorhexidine-alcohol hand sanitizer

    • Combination

      • Example hand washing and a gel or lotion

Veterinary Medical Perspective

  • Very limited information on optimal hand hygiene methods for animal care personnel

    • Most of the recommendations have been adapted from human health care

  • Veterinary medicine

    • Most veterinary patients are very hairy

    • Most veterinary patients are not bathed daily

    • Use of gloves for all patient contact is not routine

Essentials for Hand Hygiene

  • Keep finger nails short and clean under finger nails as needed

  • Hand hygiene:

    • Should be performed between animal contacts

    • Wash station or sanitizers must be readily available and not compromise animal care

    • Should minimize negative impact on skin of animal care providers

    • Can include alcohol based hand sanitizer if hands are not grossly soiled

Hand Hygiene Summary

  • Those involved in care of animals for the CO VRMC should:

    • Develop a minimum level of hand hygiene

    • Based procedures on the risk

    • Use hand hygiene as a routine or habit

  • If risk of contagious disease is high:

    • Use examination gloves along with other needed barrier precautions

    • Perform hand hygiene after removal of examination gloves

Barrier Protections

  • Gloves

  • Masks

    • N-95 or better

  • Gowns/coveralls

  • Caps/hair protection

  • HAZMAT protection

    • Levels A, B, C are seldom used in clinical animal care

Cleaning and Disinfection


Removal of visible contaminants

Must precede disinfection


Application of a suitable chemical agent for an appropriate amount of time to destroy specific infectious agents

10 Essential Steps in Cleaning and Disinfection

Assess the areas to be cleaned

Remove all visible debris

Clean with water and detergent or soap

Thoroughly rinse the cleaned area

Allow the area to dry completely

Cleaning and Disinfection (continued)

Select and apply disinfectant

Allow the proper contact time


Leave the area free of animals for a sufficient amount of time

Evaluate/monitor the effectiveness of the disinfection plan

Cleaning and Disinfection Assessment

Microorganism considerations

Disinfectant considerations

Environmental considerations

Health and safety of people and animals

Disinfectant Considerations

  • Label information

    • Statements of efficacy

      • Medical environment claims

      • Broad spectrum/general purpose

    • Dilution and use instructions

    • Storage and stability

    • Safety information

    • Environmental considerations


Bites and Scratches

Rabies and bite policies needed


Post-bite protocols

10 day quarantine

Risk recognition in companion animals, livestock and wildlife

Cat scratches

Cat-scratch fever

Rabies Prophylaxis


Given prior to exposure

Periodic antibody titer monitoring

Post-exposure prophylaxis

Coordination with public health

Needed in:

Known positive cases

Exposure by animals unavailable for testing (such as wildlife)

Prophylaxis ( Greek "προφυλάσσω" to guard or prevent beforehand ) is any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure a disease.

Common BRM Flaws

Designate food storage,preparation, and eating areasDesignate specimen storage and and handling areas

Even in the field, the CO VMRC must..

Implementing BRM/IC

  • Not an easy task; almost every step will inconvenience someone

    • Particularly during a disaster

  • Tendency for complacency, convenience to overcome policies, unless we commit to:

    • Education

    • Enforcement

    • Evaluation

    • Continue improvement into the future.

Agricultural Bio-defense

Defending against the potential volcanic impacts of foreign animal diseases

Examples of significant FAD agents:

African Swine Fever

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

Classical Swine Fever

Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

Exotic Newcastle Disease

Foot and Mouth Disease

Highly-Pathogenic Avian Influenza

Lumpy Skin Disease

Rift Valley Fever


Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis

Bio-Security Measures for ProducersIf FAD response is at a production facility. Limit visitors.

  • Post visitor policies

  • No visitors from foreign countries for 7 days

  • Limited access for service providers

  • Clean/disinfect vehicles entering animal areas

  • Provide clean garments/boots for necessary visitors


  • Fencing and locked gates where possible

  • Secure feed and chemicals

  • Report suspicious persons or events to local law enforcement or FBI


  • Pre-screen employees when possible

  • Train employees on:

    • Biological risk management programs

    • Continuity of operations plan

  • Provide clean footwear, coveralls

  • Policy on off-hours contact with animals

  • Reporting of suspicious behavior/events

BRM for Field Veterinary Services

  • Monitor refrigerated medication temperatures

  • Bag and leave waste from each visit

  • Sites should have “clean” areas and “dirty” areas

BRM in Animal Sheltering

  • Risk factors

    • Stress

    • Varying levels of preventive care

      • Veterinary records not usually available

    • Congregation of many individual animals in close proximity

    • Pre-existing illness

    • Exposure to pathogens during disaster

    • Owner/history may be unavailable

Biological Risk Management in Community Emergencies

  • Environmental and infrastructure challenges

    • Utility failure

      • Sewage infrastructure

      • Water treatment

    • Flood waters

      • Micro-organism

      • Chemicals

      • Well contamination

    • Dead animals

BRM in Animal Emergency Plans

  • Responsible for BRM components

    • State

      • State veterinarian

      • Universities

      • Public health

      • Veterinary associations

    • Local

      • Public health

      • Veterinary professionals

  • Written guidelines for animal response programs

    • Modify protocols to fit each emergency

BRM Tools in Disaster

  • Obtain records when possible

    • Veterinary medical history

    • Copies of preventive care

  • Intake surveillance/triage

    • Especially for livestock

    • Veterinary screening exam for all animals

    • Isolation area for high-risk signs

  • Onsite preventive care where history is unknown

    • Immunization

    • Parasite control

  • Ongoing surveillance

    • Screening examination 1-2 times daily

    • Thorough exam when indicated

    • Isolation for certain signs

    • Establish veterinary care protocols

  • Limit access to animal areas

  • Sanitation protocols

    • Written protocols

    • Onsite training: all workers/volunteers

    • OSHA “Right to know” considerations

      • MSDS availability

      • Training

      • PPE

  • Personal hygiene protocols

    • Hand washing

    • Eating/drinking



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  • Click on “my learning”

  • Click on name of course

  • It will ask you to either “withdraw” or “complete the course”. Click on “complete”

  • Click on “take assessment”

  • Complete the test and submit

  • If you passed the test, your certificate of completion will be added to your CO TRAIN account

  • Login