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General Energy System Development for Sport. Kyle Bohannon, CSCS Graduate of Miami University, B.S. Exercise Science Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist Interned with the Strength and Conditioning Staff at Miami

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General Energy System Development for Sport

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General energy system development for sport

General Energy System Development for Sport

Kyle Bohannon, CSCS

Who am i

  • Graduate of Miami University, B.S. Exercise Science

  • Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist

  • Interned with the Strength and Conditioning Staff at Miami

  • Owner of Strive Training Located in Evendale, Ohio

  • Head Physical Preparation Coach of the Western Hills High School Football Team

Who am I?

The challenge to overcome

  • Many sport coaches don’t know how to properly organize and develop the physical preparation of their athletes.

  • The use of “conditioning” drills are implemented based on a lack of understanding of the bio-energetic demands of sport play.

  • A lack of an understanding of the energy systems.

The Challenge to Overcome

The goal

  • To provide a general framework for developing the proper energy systems to meet the demands of specificity towards the attainment of sport mastery.

  • Presentation will focus more so on intermittent sports, but the concepts can be applied towards other bio-energetic demands.

The Goal

What is conditioning

  • “the process of training to become physically fit by a regimen of exercise, diet, and rest; also the resulting state of physical fitness.”(Merrian-Webster)

  • Not Singular. All encompassing. Skill Specific!

  • “Conditioning” is not about running multiple 300 repeats, but rather “conditioning” the body for sport play with respect to all aspects of attaining sport form. Physical Preparation, Technical/Tactical Preparation, Recovery/Regeneration, and Psychological.

What is “Conditioning?”

What is energy system training

  • The understanding of the bio-energetics of sport play and then implementing the gained knowledge to increase the body’s ability to produce energy, ATP, from the appropriate systems dictated by the sport’s demands.

What is Energy System Training?

What are the energy systems

  • Alactic Anaerobic- Creatine Phosphate and ATP, 1-10 Seconds

  • Lactic Anaerobic- Glucose and Lactate, 10 Seconds 1 minute

  • Aerobic-With Oxygen, Glucose, Fat, and Amino Acids, 1+ minute

  • It should be noted that at no point is one energy system acting alone. The above only serves to point at what the dominate contributing factor is.

What are the Energy Systems?

The primary aims of the systems

  • Alactic Anaerobic-Provide energy for short explosive actions through the use of stored ATP and ATP produced from Creatine Phosphate

The Primary Aims of the Systems

The primary aims of the systems1

  • Lactate Anaerobic- Provide energy for activity of moderate to high intensity for moderation durations.

  • Energy is produced through the breakdown of glucose.

  • Leads to the accumulation of Hydrogen which is thought to cause fatigue. (Lactic) Threshold.

The Primary Aims of the Systems

The primary aims of the systems2

  • Aerobic- Energy is produced with the aid of Oxygen via the breakdown of glucose, fat, and amino acids.

  • Used in Prolonged Activity.

  • Primary energy system at rest.

The Primary Aims of the Systems

Demands of the energy systems

  • Different sports require the energy systems to show themselves in various ways.

    • Capacity/Supply- The ability to produce a high amount of energy for a prolonged period of time from the desired energy system

    • Power/Utilization- The ability to produce, at a high rate, the energy needed.

Demands of the Energy Systems

Relation to sport disciplines

  • Alactic-Anaerobic: Football, Weightlifting, Baseball

  • Lactic-Anaerobic: Hockey, Wrestling.

  • Aerobic: Cycling, Cross Country

  • As already stated, most sports demand energy from multiple systems.

Relation to Sport Disciplines

Fluctuations in dominate systems

  • No one energy system is producing all of the needed fuel at one time.

  • Demands call for a change in dominance.

  • If an action is short duration than the Alactic-Anaerobic system is producing the mostenergy. Etc.

Fluctuations in Dominate Systems

Fluctuations in dominate systems continued

  • In High Intensity Interval Sports, the shift occurs due toa reduction in the high intensity systems, CNS Output, Muscle Contractile Velocity/Force, and Available Energy Stores.

  • Thus, not only does alactic capacity and power need to be developed, but so to does an appropriate level of aerobic capacity and power to maintain as close to the same level of performance as possible.

Fluctuations in Dominate Systems Continued

Fluctuations in dominate systems continued1

  • Another Benefit: In High Intensity Sports, an adequately developed aerobic system serves to regenerate ATP-PC, as well as promote an increase in the rate of blood and oxygen delivery to the musclesduring rest.

Fluctuations in Dominate Systems Continued

Developing the aerobic system for hiis

  • Promote recovery in HIIS and raise fitness levels

  • Means: Tempo Runs at below 70% MHR (Capacity), ~75% MHR (Power).

  • Means: Reduced Rest Periods

  • Means: Active Recovery during rest periods.

    • Jump Rope, Callisthenics, Low Intensity Accessory Work

Developing the Aerobic System for HIIS

Fluctuations in dominate systems continued2

  • In aerobic sports, like marathons for example, some anaerobic development will allow for short bursts of high intensity action to ‘make the final push.’

Fluctuations in Dominate Systems Continued

Developing the anaerobic system for l i s

  • Raise the ability to produce energy anaerobically ‘just enough.”

  • Means: Short Sprints, Interval Sprints

  • Means: Weight Training with <10sec TUT

  • Means: Jump Training with <10sec of work

Developing the Anaerobic System for L.I.S.

General plan for energy system development

  • 1st Step: Analyze Work to Rest Ratio

  • 2nd Step: Analyze Positional/Tactical Demands

  • 3rd Step: Analyze Dynamic Correspondence of Positional/Sport Technique.

General Plan for Energy System Development

Example athlete

  • Discipline: Collegiate American Football

  • Position: 1st String Offensive Tackle

  • Offensive Scheme/Tactical: Spread Offense

Example Athlete

1 st step analyze work to rest ratio

  • The typical work to rest ratio in American Football is 4-6 seconds : 20-40 seconds; Play Clock? Hurry Up?

  • There are occasional plays which reach lengths of 10-15 seconds of work.

  • Average of 3-4 Series a Quarter with 5-7 minutes rest between each.

  • 15 minutes between each half.

  • As a 1st string player, our example Offensive lineman will be in a higher amount of plays. 40-60 on average.

1st Step: Analyze Work to Rest Ratio

2 nd step analyze positional tactical demands

  • In the spread offense an offensive tackle must show an ability to cover more ground to move into the second level to make blocks.

  • In contrast, in a pro style offense, most work is done in the trenches.

2ndStep: Analyze Positional/Tactical Demands

3 rd step analyze dynamic correspondence

  • The Criteria of Dynamic Correspondence as Stated by Yuri Verkhoshansky:

  • Match the amplitude and direction of movement

  • Match the accentuated region of force production.

  • Match the dynamics of the effort.

  • Match the rate and time of maximal force production.

  • Match the regimen of the muscular work.

  • Note: Actually performing the sport action is the only true means which completely fulfills the criteria.

3rd Step: Analyze Dynamic Correspondence

The general to competition continuum

General General-Specific Competition

  • Note: Not only should you work along this continuum in regards to exercise selection within each give session, but it must also be followed within the frame work of the yearly plan.

  • The closer you get to the competitive period, the training should progress closer towards matching sport demands, aerobic or anaerobic. This will prevent competing demands.

The General to Competition Continuum

Sample energy system session

  • 1st Quarter:

    • 1st Series: 5sec Lateral Shuttle; 3 “Plays” 25 sec Rest (Lateral/Frontal Plane Movement, General-Specific Drill)

    • 2nd Series: Overhead Tire Toss and Sprint 15 yard Sprint; 3 “Plays” 25 sec Rest (Explosive Movement General-Specific Drill)

    • 3rd Series: Rip Move and Sprint to 2nd Level: 3 “Plays” 25 sec Rest (Competition Drill)

      • Include Various “Blocks” to pick up down the field. Be Creative! (Work to Get into Space and 2nd Level )

        Rest 4-5 minutes between quarters

Sample Energy System Session

Example energy system training session

  • Video:

Example Energy System Training Session.

Keys to success

  • Must meet the work to rest ratios.

  • Build up over time to expected number of plays and rest periods as seen in a game.

  • Vary duration/distance/rest periods as is seen in game conditions.

  • Work along the general-to-competition continuum.

Keys to Success

My gift to you

  • Email me at in order to receive your copy of “A System for Energy System Development”, an extension of this presentation.

My Gift to You

Thank you

Kyle Bohannon, CSCS


Thank You

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