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Chapter 4 溶液与固溶体 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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溶体. 又称为. 溶液. Chapter 4 溶液与固溶体. 多组分的均相体系称为混合物或溶体,在区分溶质 和溶剂时常用溶体的概念。. 按照聚集状态的不同:. 溶液 : 由气体、固体和液体分别溶解在液体中形成的. 如果组成溶液的物质有不同的状态,通常将 液态物质称为溶剂 , 气态或固态物质称为溶质 。. 1887 年,法国化学家 Raoult 从实验中归纳出一个经验定律: 在定温下,在稀溶液中,溶剂的蒸气压等于纯溶剂蒸气压 乘以溶液中溶剂的摩尔分数 ,用公式表示为:. §4.1 拉乌尔定律和亨利定律 (稀溶液中的经验定律).

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Chapter 4 溶液与固溶体

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Chapter 4


1887Raoult

4.1

  • PA A

  • PA* A

  • xA

1.


xA=1 - xB

PA=PA*(1-xB)=PA*-PA*xB

PA= PA*- PA = PA*xB

2.

PA A

xB B

BPA

BPAA

xA 1


1.

PB = kx xB

xB B

PB B

kx Tp


2.

CB


bBmol/kg

cBmol/L

kmkckx

kxkm kc

PB

1

bB<0.01mol/kg


2pB

3HClH+Cl-

4T

4-1 P81


4.2

1.


2.

~~


3.

T pA* pB*

pA pBxB

P

pxB


-


4.

B


B

  • B

BTp


  • pp

  • pp


n

5.


.

1.

2.AB


T,p

B

xB=1

bB



.


1.

CaCl2

pxB


2.

1

Tf

4-5

2Tf

A


T

fusG(A)AA


xBln(1-xB)



ABmAmB

MAMB

/KfbB=1

p884-2


3.

KbKf

Tb

TfTb

dxAdT

p894-4


A

A

p2

p1

A

4.

A


Ap2p2>p1


VA,m:



4.3

.

1.

2.


A-BA-AB-B

AB

3.

A-BA-AB-B

AB


xA 1

A

xA 0 A

kA

pA*

0

xA

A

A


4.

xBB B

.

1.


2.


B


3.

1

pApA*A

xApA

A


pBk

2

Tf

4-7 P96


-

4-9 P97


mix xE>0

mix xE<0

1.

xE

xE = xre - xid mixxE = mixxre - mixxid


xE = xre xid =

B

B

B

n11n22

1


G-G=(n11+n22)

- (n11+n22)

2



3

GE=HE-TSE

mixGE = mixHE -T mixSE


SE=0GE=HE

HE=0GE=-TSE

:


4.4

1.


Tp

pp




bB

c


2.



=1


4.5


MgOCoO

Mg1-xCoxO

.

1.


2.


HBCNOC-Fe


Al2O3 MgOAl3+ MgO Mg2+ Al3+Mg2+ Mg


1.

AxByAxByAl2O3Al:O=2:3MgOMg:O=1:1


2.

A

3.

4.


5.

AA


.

MgOCaONaClMg2+ 0.66ACa2+ 0.72AMgOMg2+ Ca2+

Al2O3 Cr2O3ThO2 VO2PbTiO3 PbZrO3


15%


<15%

1.

>15%15%


Mg 2+ 0.66ACa 2+ 0.72A

BeOMgO 65%

BeOCaO 70%


15%

a.15%10~15%15%

b.U

ArBn10


r=r0-Ar-110n10%15%

15%15%


2.

MgO Al2O3

Ca1-xNaxAl2-xSi2+xO8CaAlNaSi


3.

4.

z/d2zd


z/d2<0.1

z/d2>0.4

0.5 z/d21.0

5.


.

HCNBC

YF3CaF2


F-Y 3+Ca 2+

.


G=U+pV-TS

VpV

T0

S

TS

S


NnAN-nBAB

x = n/N A

x 1-xS x = 4-10.


ABU

ABABAB

ABAB

4-11 P109


.

1.

assa1a2c1c2n


n=1ass=a1c1+a2c2

n=3(ass)3=a13c1+a23c2,

2.

PbTiO3490

PbZrO3230

Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3x=0~1


Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3PbTiO3 PbZrO3PZT

3.

PZTLa2O3PLZT

Pb1-xLax(Zr0.65Ti0.35) 1-(x/4) O3,x=0.9

La3+ APb2+BPLZT


Al2O3

Al2O3-Cr2O3

.

1.NaCl


NaCl

NaClKClCaOMgO

TiO2

2.


Zr1-xCaxO2-x xCa 2+Zr

Zr1-xCa2xO2

CaOx

1600

1800CaO


3.

V:X

mn


4.

Si3N4

-Si3N4Al2O31700

Al2O3 Si3N4-Si3N4

[AlO4]5-[SiO4]4-


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