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Chapter 4 溶液与固溶体 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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溶体. 又称为. 溶液. Chapter 4 溶液与固溶体. 多组分的均相体系称为混合物或溶体,在区分溶质 和溶剂时常用溶体的概念。. 按照聚集状态的不同:. 溶液 : 由气体、固体和液体分别溶解在液体中形成的. 如果组成溶液的物质有不同的状态,通常将 液态物质称为溶剂 , 气态或固态物质称为溶质 。. 1887 年,法国化学家 Raoult 从实验中归纳出一个经验定律: 在定温下,在稀溶液中,溶剂的蒸气压等于纯溶剂蒸气压 乘以溶液中溶剂的摩尔分数 ,用公式表示为:. §4.1 拉乌尔定律和亨利定律 (稀溶液中的经验定律).

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Chapter 4 溶液与固溶体

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4


Chapter 4

1887Raoult

4.1

  • PA A

  • PA* A

  • xA

1.


Chapter 4

xA=1 - xB

PA=PA*(1-xB)=PA*-PA*xB

PA= PA*- PA = PA*xB

2.

PA A

xB B

BPA

BPAA

xA 1


Chapter 4

1.

PB = kx xB

xB B

PB B

kx Tp


Chapter 4

2.

CB


Chapter 4

bBmol/kg

cBmol/L

kmkckx

kxkm kc

PB

1

bB<0.01mol/kg


Chapter 4

2pB

3HClH+Cl-

4T

4-1 P81


Chapter 4

4.2

1.


Chapter 4

2.

~~


Chapter 4

3.

T pA* pB*

pA pBxB

P

pxB


Chapter 4

-


Chapter 4

4.

B


Chapter 4

B

  • B

BTp


Chapter 4

  • pp

  • pp


Chapter 4

n

5.


Chapter 4

.

1.

2.AB


Chapter 4

T,p

B

xB=1

bB


Chapter 4


Chapter 4

.


Chapter 4

1.

CaCl2

pxB


Chapter 4

2.

1

Tf

4-5

2Tf

A


Chapter 4

T

fusG(A)AA


Chapter 4

xBln(1-xB)


Chapter 4


Chapter 4

ABmAmB

MAMB

/KfbB=1

p884-2


Chapter 4

3.

KbKf

Tb

TfTb

dxAdT

p894-4


Chapter 4

A

A

p2

p1

A

4.

A


Chapter 4

Ap2p2>p1


Chapter 4

VA,m:


Chapter 4


Chapter 4

4.3

.

1.

2.


Chapter 4

A-BA-AB-B

AB

3.

A-BA-AB-B

AB


Chapter 4

xA 1

A

xA 0 A

kA

pA*

0

xA

A

A


Chapter 4

4.

xBB B

.

1.


Chapter 4

2.


Chapter 4

B


Chapter 4

3.

1

pApA*A

xApA

A


Chapter 4

pBk

2

Tf

4-7 P96


Chapter 4

-

4-9 P97


Chapter 4

mix xE>0

mix xE<0

1.

xE

xE = xre - xid mixxE = mixxre - mixxid


Chapter 4

xE = xre xid =

B

B

B

n11n22

1


Chapter 4

G-G=(n11+n22)

- (n11+n22)

2


Chapter 4


Chapter 4

3

GE=HE-TSE

mixGE = mixHE -T mixSE


Chapter 4

SE=0GE=HE

HE=0GE=-TSE

:


Chapter 4

4.4

1.


Chapter 4

Tp

pp


Chapter 4


Chapter 4


Chapter 4

bB

c


Chapter 4

2.


Chapter 4


Chapter 4

=1


Chapter 4

4.5


Chapter 4

MgOCoO

Mg1-xCoxO

.

1.


Chapter 4

2.


Chapter 4

HBCNOC-Fe


Chapter 4

Al2O3 MgOAl3+ MgO Mg2+ Al3+Mg2+ Mg


Chapter 4

1.

AxByAxByAl2O3Al:O=2:3MgOMg:O=1:1


Chapter 4

2.

A

3.

4.


Chapter 4

5.

AA


Chapter 4

.

MgOCaONaClMg2+ 0.66ACa2+ 0.72AMgOMg2+ Ca2+

Al2O3 Cr2O3ThO2 VO2PbTiO3 PbZrO3


Chapter 4

15%


Chapter 4

<15%

1.

>15%15%


Chapter 4

Mg 2+ 0.66ACa 2+ 0.72A

BeOMgO 65%

BeOCaO 70%


Chapter 4

15%

a.15%10~15%15%

b.U

ArBn10


Chapter 4

r=r0-Ar-110n10%15%

15%15%


Chapter 4

2.

MgO Al2O3

Ca1-xNaxAl2-xSi2+xO8CaAlNaSi


Chapter 4

3.

4.

z/d2zd


Chapter 4

z/d2<0.1

z/d2>0.4

0.5 z/d21.0

5.


Chapter 4

.

HCNBC

YF3CaF2


Chapter 4

F-Y 3+Ca 2+

.


Chapter 4

G=U+pV-TS

VpV

T0

S

TS

S


Chapter 4

NnAN-nBAB

x = n/N A

x 1-xS x = 4-10.


Chapter 4

ABU

ABABAB

ABAB

4-11 P109


Chapter 4

.

1.

assa1a2c1c2n


Chapter 4

n=1ass=a1c1+a2c2

n=3(ass)3=a13c1+a23c2,

2.

PbTiO3490

PbZrO3230

Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3x=0~1


Chapter 4

Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3PbTiO3 PbZrO3PZT

3.

PZTLa2O3PLZT

Pb1-xLax(Zr0.65Ti0.35) 1-(x/4) O3,x=0.9

La3+ APb2+BPLZT


Chapter 4

Al2O3

Al2O3-Cr2O3

.

1.NaCl


Chapter 4

NaCl

NaClKClCaOMgO

TiO2

2.


Chapter 4

Zr1-xCaxO2-x xCa 2+Zr

Zr1-xCa2xO2

CaOx

1600

1800CaO


Chapter 4

3.

V:X

mn


Chapter 4

4.

Si3N4

-Si3N4Al2O31700

Al2O3 Si3N4-Si3N4

[AlO4]5-[SiO4]4-


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