Plant structure and function
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Plant Structure and Function. Specialized Tissues in Plants Plant Organs: Roots, Stems, and Leaves. Roots Anchor the plant and absorb nutrients and water Mutualistic relationship with mycorrhizae and rhizobacteria Transport Nutrients to the plant Store Food.

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Plant Structure and Function

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Plant structure and function

Plant Structure and Function


Specialized tissues in plants plant organs roots stems and leaves

Specialized Tissues in PlantsPlant Organs: Roots, Stems, and Leaves

  • Roots

    • Anchor the plant and absorb nutrients and water

      • Mutualistic relationship with mycorrhizae and rhizobacteria

    • Transport Nutrients to the plant

    • Store Food


Specialized tissues in plants

Specialized Tissues in Plants

  • Stems

    • Support the plant

    • Transport water and nutrients

    • Protect against predators and disease


Specialized tissues in plants1

Specialized Tissues in Plants

  • Leaves

    • Conduct photosynthesis

    • Increased SA:V with leaf size

    • Protect against water loss

      • Waxy cuticle

      • Stomata and Guard Cells


Specialized tissues in plants plant tissues dermal vascular and ground tissue

Specialized Tissues in PlantsPlant Tissues: Dermal, Vascular, and Ground Tissue


Specialized tissues in plants2

Specialized Tissues in Plants

  • Dermal Tissue

    • Covers the plant

      • Epidermis (epi = upon) –

        • single layer of cells on the outside of the plant

      • Cuticle – layer of wax that covers the epidermis and prevents water loss (polarity?)

      • Trichomes – tiny hairlike projections for protection

      • Bark – covers the epidermis in woody plants

      • Root hair cells are found on the epidermis of roots to help absorb water (SA:V)


Specialized tissues in plants3

Specialized Tissues in Plants

  • Vascular Tissue

    • Vessels that transport water and nutrients

      • Plant “bloodstream”

        • Xylem – carries water

        • Phloem – carries nutrients


Vascular tissue xylem

Vascular Tissue - Xylem

  • Tracheids – hollow plant cells of the xylem with thick cell walls strengthened by lignin

    • Lignin resists water and is a major constituent in wood

    • Openings in the cell walls of tracheids allow water to pass from cell to cell and therefore be transported throughout the plant

  • Vessel Elements - hollow plants cells of xylem stacked end to end.

    • Water passes from cell to cell through slit-like openings on the ends of each cell


Vascular tissue phloem

Vascular Tissue – Phloem

  • Sieve Tube Elements – cells of the phloem that are arranged end to end and allow nutrients to flow throughout the plant in a watery stream

  • Companion Cells – cells of the phloem that the sieve tube cells and aid in the movement of nutrients


Specialized tissues in plants4

Specialized Tissues in Plants

  • Ground Tissue

    • Produces and Stores food (sugars)

      • Composes most of the edible portions of plants

    • Contributes to the physical support of the plant

    • Ground tissue is composed of three main types of cells

      • Parenchyma

      • Collenchyma

      • Sclerenchyma


Ground tissue

Ground Tissue

  • Parenchyma

    • Makes up the highest percentage of ground tissue

      • Thin cell walls

      • Large central vacuole

      • Limited cytoplasm

    • Contain many chloroplasts in leaves and are the main sight of photosynthesis


Ground tissue1

Ground Tissue

  • Collenchyma

    • Chains of strong, flexible cell walls

    • Provide support for plant organs

  • Sclerenchyma

    • Extremely thick and rigid cells walls

      • Found on seed coats (strong!)

      • Have been used to make rope from hemp


Plant growth and meristems

Plant Growth and Meristems

  • Meristems – regions of specialized plant cells in which mitosis produces new cells ready for differentiation

    • The undifferentiated cells produced are much like the stem cells of animals

    • Located in parts of plants that undergo rapid growth

    • Allow even the oldest trees to produce new leaves and new reproductive organs each year


Plant structure and function

  • Apical Meristem– located at the end (apex) of a root or stem.

    • Leads to increase in root or stem length

    • Once produced, the new cells differentiate into new dermal, vascular, and ground tissue


Plant structure and function

Floral Meristems

  • Produce the tissues of flowers

    • Includes the plant’s reproductive organs as well as the colorful petals that surround them


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