Lecture 2 the effect of pollution on the environment human health
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LECTURE 2 : The EFFECT OF POLLUTION ON the Environment & HUMAN HEALTH PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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LECTURE 2 : The EFFECT OF POLLUTION ON the Environment & HUMAN HEALTH. ARCH 213 ecological issues in architecture. THE EFFECT OF POLLUTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT & HUMAN HEALTH. AIR POLLUTION WATER POLLUTION LAND POLLUTION LAND USE. Air Pollution.

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LECTURE 2 : The EFFECT OF POLLUTION ON the Environment & HUMAN HEALTH

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Lecture 2 the effect of pollution on the environment human health

LECTURE 2: The EFFECT OF POLLUTION ONthe Environment & HUMAN HEALTH

ARCH 213 ecological issues in architecture


The effect of pollution on the environment human health

THE EFFECT OF POLLUTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT & HUMAN HEALTH

  • AIR POLLUTION

  • WATER POLLUTION

  • LAND POLLUTION

  • LAND USE


Air pollution

Air Pollution

AirPollution is continuously increasing every MINUTE due to:

  • GROWING POPULATION / URBANIZATION

  • INCREASE IN THE USE OF CARS

  • SPREAD OF INDUSTRIAL AREAS

  • Nuclear energy diffusion across the WORLD,

  • Deforestation across the WORLD,

  • Lack of enough growth of trees (to take carbon oxides) due to lack of enough rains (which is again due to Air Pollution).

  • Bomb tests across the WORLD


Sources of outdoor air pollution

Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution

  • Two main sources

    • Transportation

    • Industry

  • Intentional forest fires is also high


The results of air pollution

THE RESULTS OF AIR POLLUTION

  • RELEASE OF Carbon Monoxide

  • form carboxyhaemoglobin

  • permanently with

  • haemoglobin

  • in blood which reduces the

  • oxygen-carrying capacity

  • Ofbloodhealth effect:

  • slowresponse, fainting and

  • even death


The results of air pollution1

THE RESULTS OF AIR POLLUTION

  • RELEASE OF Carbon Dioxide

    • accounts for Greenhouse Effect

    • causes melting of polar ice  increases in sea level  causes flooding of cities


Result of air pollution

RESULT OF AIR POLLUTION:

  • Ozone layer depletion ,

  • Ultra-Violet penetration into the Earth.


Effects of ozone depletion

Effects of Ozone Depletion

  • Higher levels of UV-radiation hitting the earth

    • Eye cataracts

    • Skin cancer (right)

    • Weakened immunity

  • May disrupt ecosystems

  • May damage crops and forests


Lecture 2 the effect of pollution on the environment human health

THE RESULTS OF AIR POLLUTION

  • RELEASE OF Carbon Particles :

  • Environmental Effect: cover plants & make them unable to carry out gaseous exchange & photosynthesis

  • Health Effect: cause respiratory diseases

  • Lead : from cars

  • Health Effect: affect mental development of baby & child, cause headache, irritability, fatigue & depression


Lecture 2 the effect of pollution on the environment human health

H2SO4 & HNO3

Dry fallout

Acid snow

SO2 & NOx

Acid rain

Die off of aquatic life

Acid leaching

THE RESULTS OF AIR POLLUTION

  • RELEASE OF SulphurDioxide & Nitrogen Dioxide

  • Environmental Effect: produce acid rain which is corrosive to buildings and plants & fish are unable to survive in acidic conditions


Lecture 2 the effect of pollution on the environment human health

THE RESULTS OF AIR POLLUTION

Smog Formation

  • pollutants trapped by a layer of warm air above so that it cannot rise and disperse

  • a mixture of poisonous gases & fog

  • Health Effect: irritates eyes & lungs

  • Environmental Effect: toxic to plants

  • CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons)

  • Environmental Effect: reduce amount of ozone in atmosphere

  • Health Effect: increase chances of skin cancer


Lecture 2 the effect of pollution on the environment human health

THE RESULTS OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON

THE ENVIRONMENT

DomesticWASTES

  • Rubbish

  • Environmental Effect: give off bad smell & attract pests

  • Metal Cans & Plastics

  • Environmental Effect: non-biodegradable which needs plenty of space for landfilling


Lecture 2 the effect of pollution on the environment human health

  • Detergents

  • Environmental Effect:

  • create foam on surface, decrease oxygen content in rivers, living organisms suffocate & die

  • affect the functioning of sewage treatment plant by killing micro-organisms which the treatment depends


Lecture 2 the effect of pollution on the environment human health

  • Agricultural Wastes

  • Inorganic Fertilizers

  • Environmental Effect:

  • cause rapid growth of algae (e.g. red tides)

  • use up lots of O2 in water

  • fish & other organisms die from suffocation


Lecture 2 the effect of pollution on the environment human health

  • Manure

  • Environmental Effect:

  • decomposers increase rapidly due to sufficient food supply

  • O2 content in water decreases

  • cause suffocation of fish & other organisms


Lecture 2 the effect of pollution on the environment human health

Industrial Wastes

  • Soluble Poisonous Heavy Metal Elements

  • Environmental Effect: accumulate along the food chain & cause death when in high concentration


Lecture 2 the effect of pollution on the environment human health

  • Crude Oil (from wrecked tankers)

    • Environmental Effect:

    • cover sea surface which reduces light penetration and dissolve O2 amount

    • stick feathers of birds, making them unable to fly


The effect of land pollution on the environment human health

THE EFFECT OF land POLLUTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT & HUMAN HEALTH

  • Metallic elements (i.e heavy metals) that are present in contaminated environments occur at high concentrations and result in public health. Heavy metals may be released into the environment from scrap metal, plastic and rubber industries, various consumerproducts and from burning of waste containing these elements.


The effect of land pollution on the environment

THE EFFECT OF land POLLUTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT.

  • Environmental pollution originating from waste dumping sites

Radioactive Waste Dumping site

Municipal Waste Dumping Site


The effect of land pollution on the environment human health1

THE EFFECT OF land POLLUTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT & HUMAN HEALTH

  • The elements that are ofconcern include lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, zinc, nickel andcopper.

Extraction of copper, Lefke, North Cyprus


The effect of land pollution on the environment human health2

THE EFFECT OF land POLLUTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT & HUMAN HEALTH

Nickel-cadmium batteries, Computer monitors, tvs containing cadmium


The effect of land air pollution on the environment human health

THE EFFECT OF land & AIR POLLUTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT & HUMAN HEALTH

If released tothe air, these elements travel for large distances and are deposited onto the soil,vegetation and water depending on their density. Once deposited, these metalsare not degraded and stay in the environment threathening human health through inhalation, ingestion and skin absorbtion. Acute exposure leads to anorexia, vomiting and gastrointestinal abnormalities.


Effects of heavy metal pollution on human health

Effects of heavy metal pollutION on HUMAN HEALTH


The effect of land use on the environment

The effect of land use on the envIronment

DEFROSTATION

  • atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration increases

  • soil erosion by heavy rain or strong wind

    • no root to hold soil particles together

    • soil being washed into rivers  fills up the river bed  causes flooding


The effect of land use on the environment1

The effect of land use on the envIronment

THE EFFECTS OF DEFROSTATION

  • destroys natural habitats & causes loss of species

    • cause extinction of species because of destruction of natural habitat

    • loss of important medicines


The effect of water pollution on the environment and human health

THE EFFECT OF WATER POLLUTION ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH


Sources of water pollution

SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

INDUSTRY

  • Industry is a huge source of water pollution, it produces pollutants that are extremely harmful to people and the environment.

  • Many industrial facilities use freshwater to carry away waste from the plant and into rivers, lakes and oceans.

    Pollutants from industrial sources include:

    • Asbestos – This pollutant is a serious health hazard . Asbestos fibres can be inhaled and cause illnesses such as asbestosis, lung cancer, intestinal cancer and liver cancer.

    • Lead – This is a metallic element and can cause health and environmental problems. It is a non-biodegradable substance so is hard to clean up once the environment is contaminated. Lead is harmful to the health of many animals, including humans, as it can inhibit the action of bodily enzymes.


Lecture 2 the effect of pollution on the environment human health

SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

OIL POLLUTION

  • Oceans are polluted by oil on a daily basis from oil spills, routine shipping, run-offs and dumping.

  • Oil spills cause a very localised problem but can be catastrophic to local marine wildlife such as fish, birds and sea otters.

  • Oil cannot dissolve in water and forms a thick sludge in the water. This suffocates fish, gets caught in the feathers of marine birds stopping them from flying and blocks light from photosynthetic aquatic plants.


Sources of water pollution1

SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

RADIO ACTIVE WASTE

  • Nuclear waste is produced from industrial, medical and scientific processes that use radioactive material. Nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on marine habitats. Nuclear waste comes from a number of sources:

  • Operations conducted by nuclear power stations produce radioactive waste.

  • Mining and refining of uranium and thorium are also causes of marine nuclear waste.


Effects of water pollution

Effects of Water Pollution

  • Groundwater contamination from pesticides causes reproductive damage within wildlife in ecosystems.

  • Sewage, fertilizer, and agricultural run-off contain organic materials that when discharged into waters, increase the growth of algae, which causes the depletion of oxygen.  The low oxygen levels are not able to support most indigenous organisms in the area and therefore upset the natural ecological balance in rivers and lakes.


Effects of water pollution1

Effects of Water Pollution

  • Swimming in and drinking contaminated water causes skin rashes and health problems like cancer, reproductive problems, typhoid fever and stomach sickness in humans.  

  • Industrial chemicals and agricultural pesticides that end up in aquatic environments can accumulate in fish that are later eaten by humans.  Fish are easily poisoned with metals that are also later consumed by humans.  Mercury is particularly poisonous to small children and women.  Mercury has been found to interfere with the development of the nervous system in fetuses and young children.


Effects of water pollution2

Effects of Water Pollution

  • Ecosystems are destroyed by the rising temperature in the water.  Additionally, the warm water forces indigenous water species to seek cooler water in other areas, causing an ecological damaging shift of the affected area.

  • Human-produced litter of items such as plastic bags can get aquatic animals caught and killed from suffocation.

  • Water pollution causes flooding due to the accumulation of solid waste and soil erosion in streams and rivers.


Lecture 2 the effect of pollution on the environment human health

NEXT WEEK: THE NEED FOR ECOLOGICAL AWARENESS


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