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OPEN NETWORKING IN THE INTERNET AGE Stephen B. Weinstein NEC USA C&C Laboratories Princeton, N.J., USA [email protected] OpenSig ‘97 Cambridge, England April 17, 1997. POSSIBLE INTERPRETATIONS OF “OPEN NETWORKING” - A meaningless term.

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Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

OPEN NETWORKING IN THE INTERNET AGE

Stephen B. Weinstein

NEC USA C&C Laboratories

Princeton, N.J., USA

[email protected]

OpenSig ‘97

Cambridge, England

April 17, 1997


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

POSSIBLE INTERPRETATIONS OF “OPEN NETWORKING”

- A meaningless term.

- Open to everyone in the sense of Universal Service(s).

- Accepting a wide range of end devices.

- Interoperability of services between networks.

- Modular architecture with standard interfaces facilitating “mix and match”

of network components.

- Readily accommodates changes in technologies and how they are used.

- Components accessible for direct end-user control.


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

ALTERNATIVE VIEWS OF “OPENNESS”

INTERNET OPENNESS:

- Attach any network using IP.

- Attach any user and any number of users (not constrained by switch ports or

access lines).

- Join any multicast session you like (receiver-initiated).

- “Intelligence” largely in attachments, at user discretion.


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

ALTERNATIVE VIEWS OF “OPENNESS”

- Nonproprietary protocols and services

.

- Experimental environment for protocol/service/application development.

An open API.

Ref: M. Decina & V. Trecordi, “Convergence of Telecommunications and

Computing on Networking Models for Integrated Services & Applications”, to appear

in Proc. IEEE.

- “Free for all” for resources.


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

MBone

RTP/TCP/IP

NAP

LAN

LAN

ISP

Internet telephony

ISP

Proxy/

relay

server

Browser/virtual machine

ISP

Web server

“Push” server

Applets, agents, ...

TCP, IP, Telnet, FTP, HTTP, ...


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

PUBLIC NETWORK OPENNESS:

- Universal telephone service.

-Standard interfaces and protocols for interoperability of virtually all telephone

systems and devices. Support of simple terminals by “intelligence” in the

network (switching software, Intelligent Network Service Control Point, etc.).

- Limited programmability for large customers (e.g. Virtual Private Network).

- Protection of network integrity and quality of service by limiting openness to

services tightly controlled in network entities.


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

LIMITED OUTSIDE PROGRAMMABILITY AND CONTROL: AIN

AND VPN

Advanced Intelligent Network

scripts for number translation

and peripheral processing

Service

control point

Portion of voice switch capacity dedicated to Virtual Private

Network customer.

Customer control of trunk group cross connect.


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

ATTACHMENT OPENNESS FOR VOICEBAND SERVICES

modem

Local company

Wireless

carrier

Long-distance

carrier

Internet real-

times services

gateway (e.g. Internet telephony/PSTN)

Local company

Internet

ISP


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

Signaling

entity

Signaling

entity

Control

entity

Management

agent

data

connection OA&M

or routing table

STANDARD CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT INTERFACES

END SYSTEM

NETWORK SYSTEMS

Proprietary

Applications

Call state

NM

applications

admiss

policy

Commun. API

CMIP Q3

Proprietary

& MIB

Measuring

entity

UNI signaling:

Dialing tones,

Q.2931

NNI

signaling

(e.g. ss#7)

Proprietary

Switch and/or

router


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

WHY IS IT DIFFICULT TO MERGE THE INTERNET AND TELCO CONCEPTS

OF OPENNESS?

- Different philosophies for transport service (e.g. IP vs. ATM).

- Different communities developing standards.

MANAGEMENT

CONTROL

ITU, ATMF

Public Networking

Community

IETF

Enterprise Networking

Community

- Different opinions about who should control networks.

- Difficulty in reconciling public network security and QoS

with Internet experimentation.


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

CONVERGENCE TRENDS BETWEEN INTERNET AND TELCO OPENNESS

- Need to interoperate, especially for real-time services (e.g. Internet telephony/

PSTN telephony).

- Movement and conversion of technologies blurring ideological boundaries.

- ATM switching in core network.

- IP switching using ATM fabric.

- Internet implementing QoS services (with at least statistical guarantees).


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

CONVERGENCE TRENDS BETWEEN INTERNET AND TELCO OPENNESS

- Internet becoming performance-oriented.

* Developing consortium of ISPs to define performance measurement

and control.

- Telco implementation of data services (many becoming ISPs).

- Technologies facilitating openness to end-user control (transportable software,

active network).

- Potential common concepts of network software architecture.


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

INTERWEAVING MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL BETWEEN INTERNET

AND TELEPHONE NETWORKS FOR OPENNESS IN SERVICES

Internet

PSTN

Examples:

SNMPCMIP

emailfax, voice messaging

RSVPQ.2931

“Esperanto”


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

OPENNESS TO CHANGES IN TECHNOLOGY UTILIZATION:

Example: routing and switching for Internet traffic.

Today:

PSTN/ISDN switch

Router

Router

Core Internet

Tomorrow:

Router

ATM

switch

Core Internet


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

Example: “Negroponte inversion”, compounded

TRADITIONAL MORE RECENT NEW

Some

intelligence

Digital

broadcast

Video

To ISP

CATV

Web TV

DIGITAL

CABLE

to ISP

Voice

CO

PCS

cellular

Internet telephony


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

Internet

PSTN

Enterprise

NETWORK SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE: AN OPPORTUNITY FOR

A COMMON PERSPECTIVE

API

Distributed Processing


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

GOALS FOR NETWORK SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE

1. Be simple and logical enough for reasonably intelligent people to understand.

2. Accomodate heterogeneity and programmability in equipment, policies, and

protocols.

Example: Control and management of a switch under either ISO or IETF

protocols.

Call admission control

Q.2931

RSVP

agent

SNMP

CMIP

edge switch


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

GOALS FOR NETWORK SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE

3. Support mobility of persons, terminals, and services.

Subscriber

profile

Away

Home

Resources

Transparency: Access to distant resources without having to know

where they are.

Location awareness: Awareness of and access to local resources,

e.g. “nearest printer”.


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

Middleware

GOALS FOR NETWORK SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE

4. Create new, reasonably efficient services in the short term without having to

wait for changes in standardized signaling and management protocols.

Newly created service

Legacy network elements and technologies


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

5.Make joint allocation of computing and communications resources.

call processing computing resources

Bandwidth resources

(Mobility and/or dynamic QoS services may place a large

burden on call processing, so that computing, rather than

bandwidth, could become the bottleneck)


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

6. Define open interfaces to switches and other network elements.

Management

queries/responses

Resource

allocation

QoS information

Control Administrate Observe


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

7. Integrate network control, management, and services creation.

8. Be evolutionary, not revolutionary.

(Communication operators must accommodate legacy systems while

implementing new ones, and must generate revenues from new

technology in order to extend it.)


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

control

WHY INTEGRATE NETWORK CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT?

- Time scales are beginning to overlap.

control

management

sec

.01

.1

1

1000

.001

10

100

user/application

requirements

- Functions are beginning to overlap.

A. Management of control policies and rapid changing of policies.

Control

Policy Mngmnt

network

conditions


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

M

U

X

..........

..........

B. Reconfiguration tightly coupled to call admission/QoS renegotiation

Example: Reconfiguration of passband channel assignment to HFC customer

(from channel “A” to channel “B”)

New service

request

to headend

existing

Reconfiguration:

-Reassign subscriber to.

channel B.

-Move existing session and new

session to channel B

tuner

A channel

Downstream spectrum

Digital passband channels (30Mbps each)

A B C D ........

congested

Ref: Kolarov & Weinstein, “Flexible bandwidth allocation in hybrid fiber/coax distribution

networks”, Proc. IEEE Globecom ‘95, Nov., 1995.


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

App. A

..........

..........

..........

..........

..........

..........

DISTRIBUTED OBJECT ARCHITECTURE CAN HELP

- Services abstractions hiding irrelevant details.

- Interoperability between applications written in different programming languages

and running on different computing platforms.

App. B

OS#3

ORB

OS #1

App.C

ORB: Object Request Broker

OS #2

- Location transparency and (when needed for mobility) location awareness.

“Connect me to the

nearest pharmacy”


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

- Relatively simple object (and abstract service) creation, over existing infrastructure.

+ Possible help in detecting feature interaction problems.

- Libraries of Object Services and Facilities: Naming, life cycle management,

persistence, etc., ease application programming.

+ Maintain relationships among objects, such as overall resource constraints.

+ Persistence supports recovery after outages or other interruptions.

XCMF bandwidth management over set

of session objects

Persistence service

Saved session state

videophone

Web browse

Movie

Movie


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

App. A

CANDIDATE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT SYSTEM:

CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture), standardized by the

OMG (Object Management Group)

- Widely accepted, in both computer and communications industries, for networked

environments and heterogeneous computing platforms.

- Pursuing a high level of interoperability between ORBs from different

vendors (version 2.0), but not there yet!

- Offers IDL (Interface Definition Language) for standard object interfaces, an

“Esperanto” that translates into many computer languages.

Java

C

IDL

App. B

Ref: “CORBA services: common object services specification, revised ed., OMG, July, 1996. See

http://www.omg.org.


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

Java applet

Java

virtual machine

..........

..........

..........

..........

WHY CAN’T JAVA APPLETS BE USED INSTEAD OF CORBA FOR

INTEROPERABILITY?

OS #1

OS #2

- They can be, if new applications are written for a virtual machine.

- CORBA is appropriate when legacy applications, in different languages and on

different machines, must be included in the system, or where large applications

are best written in a native computing environment.

- Joint use of Java applets and CORBA is possible, e.g. for conveying alterations

to CORBA objects via Java applets.


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP OF CORBA TO TINA-C?

- TINA-C* is a distributed object network architecture addressing the objectives

described earlier.

- The TINA-C Consortium appears to be considering CORBA as the foundation

ORB for its architecture, and is suggesting appropriate new features in CORBA.

- CORBA offers a fresh opportunity to deploy a widely accepted and conceptually

simple distributed object architecture in which many TINA functions can be

realized in the ORB or in Object Services.

* http://www.tinac.com/


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

CONCEPTUAL CORBA-BASED DISTRIBUTED OBJECT NETWORK

ARCHITECTURE

Library of helper

applications

multimedia

application

multimedia

application

abstract

service

abstract

service

object

service

object

service

Find service objects.

Remote procedure call

Distributed Object Environment

Runs on TCP/IP

Abstract Interface

Control

object

Control

object

Administrative

object

Monitoring

object

Monitoring

object

Administrative

object

Network Resources


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

POTENTIAL CORBA INTERFACES

Abstract services

(include functions of

UNI signaling entity)

END SYSTEM

NETWORK SYSTEMS

CORBA

wrapper

Applications

NM

applications

domain re-

sources mgr

admiss/

QoS policy

CMIP

interface

CORBA

Monitoring

entity

Control entity

Administrative

agent

TCP/IP

Proprietary

Network(s)

data

Switch and/or

router

connection OA&M

or routing


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

MM applic.

MM applic.

..........

..........

Control

..........

..........

..........

..........

object

services

NIC

WinNT

..........

..........

Portable

PC

Wireless ATM

functions

NEC C&C RESEARCH LABS INTEGRATED ATM TESTBED*

(Princeton, N.J.)

MCCP

NEC Model 5 switches

155Mbps

abstract

services

Solaris

MUX

Display/camera/

storage devices

Wireless

ATM net

initially

T1

initially 8Mbps

To Germany

(MAY project)

CORBA-based distributed

object system under development

MCCP: Multimedia C&C Prototype

(ATM and media distribution functions)

* Directed by D. Raychaudhuri


Open networking in the internet age stephen b weinstein

CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS

- A unifying software architecture can integrate diverse application and

networking worlds.

- The conceptual simplification of distributed object architecture may have

performance costs that need to be addressed. Existing work suggests

that good performance is possible with implementation care.

Refs:

1) A. Lazar, S. Bhonsle, & K-S. Lim, “A binding architecture for multimedia networks”, J. Parallel

& Distrib. Computing, vol. 30, 1995, pp. 204-216.

2) D. Schmidt, A. Gokhale, T. Harrison, & G. Prulkar, “A high performance endsystem architecture for

real-time CORBA”, IEEE Commun. Mag., Feb., 1997.

- Multimedia QoS-based services in broadband networks will be easier to realize

and control with a distributed object architecture and libraries of object services and

utilities.


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