The contribution of science to criminal investigation
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The contribution of Science to Criminal investigation. Ferdinando Boero University of Salento. Forensic science. Usually, it pertains to medicine and to methods to identify criminals and to evaluate the proofs of crimes against persons

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The contribution of Science to Criminal investigation

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The contribution of science to criminal investigation

The contribution of Science to Criminal investigation

  • Ferdinando Boero

  • University of Salento


Forensic science

Forensic science

  • Usually, it pertains to medicine and to methods to identify criminals and to evaluate the proofs of crimes against persons

  • Ecology studies the environment, and is the basis for forensic science based on crimes against the environment


Good environmental status

Good environmental status

  • The Marine Directive of the EU has the goal to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/marine/good-environmental-status/index_en.htm).

  • In general, we might consider that, naturally, environments should be in a good environmental status.

  • If this is not the case, the cause(s) of “bad” environmental status must be ascertained, alongwith the responsible agents


What are the descriptors of ges 1

What are the descriptors of GES?1

  • Biodiversity must be maintained

  • http://ec.europa.eu/environment/marine/good-environmental-status/descriptor-1/index_en.htm


What are the descriptors of ges 2

What are the descriptors of GES?2

  • Non Indigenous Species do not adversely alter the ecosystem


What are the descriptors of ges 3

What are the descriptors of GES?3

  • The population of commercial fish species is healthy


What are the descriptors of ges 4

What are the descriptors of GES?4

  • Elements of food webs ensure long-term abundance and reproduction


What are the descriptors of ges 5

What are the descriptors of GES?5

  • Eutrophication is minimised


What are the descriptors of ges 6

What are the descriptors of GES?6

  • The sea floor integrity ensures functioning of the ecosystems


What are the descriptors of ges 7

What are the descriptors of GES?7

  • Permanent alteration of hydrographical conditions does not adversely affect the ecosystem


What are the descriptors of ges 8

What are the descriptors of GES?8

  • Concentration of contaminants give no effects


What are the descriptors of ges 9

What are the descriptors of GES?9

  • Contaminants in seafood are below safe levels


What are the descriptors of ges 10

What are the descriptors of GES?10

  • Marine litter does not cause harm


What are the descriptors of ges 11

What are the descriptors of GES?11

  • Introduction of energy (including underwater noise) does not adversely affect the ecosystem


The habitats directive

The Habitats Directive

  • It is the cornerstone of Europe’s nature conservation policy

  • http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/habitatsdirective/index_en.htm

  • it can be downloaded here: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:01992L0043-20070101:EN:NOT


Marine habitats

Marine Habitats

  • they are very few:

  • 11.   Open sea and tidal areas

  • 1110 Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the time

  • 1120* Posidonia beds (Posidonion oceanicae)

  • 1130 Estuaries

  • 1140 Mudflats and sandflats not covered by seawater at low tide

  • 1150 * Coastal lagoons

  • 1160 Large shallow inlets and bays

  • 1170 Reefs

  • 1180 Submarine structures made by leaking gases

  • 8330 Submerged or partially submerged sea caves


On land

On land....

  • Terrestrial habitats are in the hundreds


Sites of community importance

Sites of Community Importance

  • They are designed by local authorities, and are aimed at protecting habitats of community importance

  • Not all habitats of community importance are in Sites of Community Importance

  • All Sites of Community Importance comprise habitats of community importance


Different legislations

Different legislations

  • These EU regulations are principles, but then the various states apply them in different ways


Questions and problems

Questions and problems

  • We do not have a precise inventory of the distribution of these features in the marine environment

  • If an altered status is detected, the question is: was it always like that?

  • and then: if not, who might be responsible of this change?


Impacts

Impacts

  • In this case, ecologists can be consulted to ascertain the quality of the environment and to detect responsibilities for its deterioration

  • Usually this implies knowledge of the state of the environment BEFORE the impact, so as to compare it to the quality of the environment AFTER the impact


Multiple stressors

Multiple stressors

  • A given situation might be determined by multiple stressors. I.e. many causes can concur to lead to an altered state of the environment.

  • It is not easy at all to discover what are the most important causes

  • Correlation is not causation


Human invented vs natural laws

Human-invented vs natural laws


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