Mao to Tiananmen Square. Taiwan= Nationalist China -U.S. aided Controlled by Chiang Kai-Shek. Mainland=People’s Republic of China -Soviet Union aided Controlled by Mao. China divided. PRC= People’s Republic of China ROC= Republic of China.
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Mao to Tiananmen Square
Taiwan= Nationalist China
Controlled by Chiang Kai-Shek
Mainland=People’s Republic of China
-Soviet Union aided
Controlled by Mao
PRC= People’s Republic of China
ROC= Republic of China
Mao Inherits a “post civil war” underdeveloped country
Years of foreign and civil wars had caused widespread damage to Chinese industry.
Many peasants were on military service and were away from their villages
Small units of land
Lack of investment
CHINA IN 1950’s
No farm machinery, no fertilisers
Damage to transport systems –roads, rail, bridges
Old-fashioned methods of farming
RICH AND POOR
In the cities, factories and businesses were owned by an elite rich.
In the countryside, most of the land was owned by a few rich landowners
The ordinary people lived in great poverty, poor housing, working long hours, often in dangerous conditions, for low pay, poor health, little education.
Collective “manpower” - working collectively produces
greater gains than working competitively
MAO'S ECONOMIC AIMS
Mao wanted China to be a great military power But China was poor and over 90% of its population were peasant farmers.
HOW WAS THIS TO BE ACHIEVED?
1. FIVE YEAR PLANS were introduced - based on the Russian model. Russian advisers were brought in to help.
2. IRON AND STEEL - Mao made iron and steel production the central focus of his industrial reform program.
3. FARMING REFORMS - The cost of modernizing industry would have to be paid by selling Chinese farm produce. Mao saw that Chinese farming also needed to be reformed. BUT he believed in manual “hands in the dirt” as being more valuable than a machine doing all the work.
* Believed in manual labor as being “connected” to the work. Building something with your own 2 hands produces pride and concern for quality
Sounds like capitalism (re-investing profit to expand and update the company), BUT the benefit is for the country not the individual
Localized production – each person is a small factory in itself
all for the benefit of the state, rather than the benefit of the individual.