Ideologies of sustainable development, sustainable tourism and eco-tourism. “Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Gro Harlem Brundtland (1987).
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“Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
Gro Harlem Brundtland (1987)
“Sustainable tourism is a ‘positive approach intended to reduce the tension and frictions created by the complex interactions between the tourist industry, visitors, the environment and communities which are host to holidaymakers.”
Bramwell et al 1996; Butler 1990; Wheeller 1991
“Eco-tourism is responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people.”
The Ecotourism Society 1991
“Eco-tourism is travel to fragile, pristine and usually protected areas to be low and (usually) small scale. It helps educate the traveler; provides funds for conservation; directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights.”
“…the environment, which, if not adequately safeguarded, will compromise…tourism. Tourists, present and future, will be denied the opportunity of visiting and experiencing environments different to those at home.”
“A completely sustainable outcome is likely to remain more of an ideal than reality.”
The Win-Win Scenario
“…sustainable eco-tourism development might be defined by the people themselves; they need to be both architects and engineers of the concept.
“Tourism is the new world religion.”
“Tourism is in essence a fashion industry.”
The ‘product cycle’, adapted from Butler’s original formulation (1980).
The ‘pleasure periphery’ extends…
Doxey’s index of tourist irritation model
“…the ultimate protectors [of eco-systems] must be the local human communities…”
“The first step towards [preservation of eco-systems] is education.”
“A crucial issue for eco-tourism is to control any development within the adaptation thresholds of the local environment.”
Shaw and Williams
“Tourism and environment is fundamental, with a strong element of mutual dependency.”
“In essence there are two broad considerations that help unravel the complexities of tourism-environmental impacts, these being: the type of tourism; and the characteristics of the environment.”
Sustainable tourism versus mass tourist is:
Knowles, Diamantis & El-Mourhabi (pg. 125)
“Mass tourism need not be uncontrolled, unplanned, short-term, or unstable.”
“It has yet to be proven that all examples of mass tourism are unsustainable” and that such unproven assumptions “have led researchers away from the difficult but much more important task of resolving how mass tourism can be made more sustainable.”