Intellectual change
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Intellectual Change. Humanism Education Political Thought Secular Spirit Christian Humanism The Printed Word. Italian Renaissance Humanism. Classical Revival Petrarch (1304 – 1374) Humanism in Fifteenth-Century Italy Leonardo Bruni (1370 – 1444) New Cicero Lorenzo Valla (1407 – 1457)

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Intellectual Change

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Intellectual change

Intellectual Change

  • Humanism

  • Education

  • Political Thought

  • Secular Spirit

  • Christian Humanism

  • The Printed Word


Italian renaissance humanism

Italian Renaissance Humanism

  • Classical Revival

  • Petrarch (1304 – 1374)

  • Humanism in Fifteenth-Century Italy

    • Leonardo Bruni (1370 – 1444)

      • New Cicero

    • Lorenzo Valla (1407 – 1457)

  • Humanism and Philosophy

    • Marsilio Ficino (1433 – 1499)

      • Translates Plato’s dialogues

      • Synthesis of Christianity and Platonism

  • Renaissance Hermeticism

    • Ficino, Corpus Hermeticum

    • Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463 – 1494), Oration on the Dignity of Man


Education history and the impact of printing

Education, History, and the Impact of Printing

  • Education in the Renaissance

    • Liberal Studies: history, moral philosophy, eloquence (rhetoric), letters (grammar and logic), poetry, mathematics, astronomy and music

    • Education of women

    • Aim of education was to create a complete citizen

  • Humanism and History

    • Secularization

    • Guicciardini (1483 – 1540), History of Italy, History of Florence

  • The Impact of Printing

    • Johannes Gutenberg

      • Movable type (1445 – 1450)

      • Gutenberg’s Bible (1455 or 1456)

    • The spread of printing


The artist and social status

The Artist and Social Status

  • Early Renaissance

    • Artists as craftsmen

  • High Renaissance

    • Artists as heroes


Central eastern and ottoman empires

Central, Eastern, and Ottoman Empires

  • Central Europe: The Holy Roman Empire

    • Habsburg Dynasty

    • Maximilian I (1493 – 1519)

  • The Struggle for Strong Monarchy in Eastern Europe

    • Poland

    • Hungary

    • Russia

  • The Ottoman Turks and the End of the Byzantine Empire

    • Seljuk Turks spread into Byzantine territory +

      • Initial invasions (1000 AD – 1300s)

    • Constantinople falls to the Turks (1453)


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