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Subjectivity leads to procedural problems Replicability is very difficult Unreliable Researcher bias is built in and unavoidable In-depth, comprehensive approach to data gathering limits scope Labor intensive Time consuming Expensive Very unreliable

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main criticisms of qualitative research

Subjectivity leads to procedural problems

  • Replicability is very difficult
  • Unreliable
  • Researcher bias is built in and unavoidable
  • In-depth, comprehensive approach to data gathering limits scope
  • Labor intensive
  • Time consuming
  • Expensive
  • Very unreliable
  • (See Haralambos Methodology Chapter)

Main Criticisms of Qualitative Research

changes in the socio political system global
Changes in the Socio-Political System (GLOBAL)
  • Marketization and global capitalism
  • Problems of Gender identities
  • Unjust social relations - class
  • Problems of National identities
  • Imposed knowledge
  • The oppression of minorities
  • organized violence
  • The hegemonic ranslational institutions and the control of nation states and social actors
  • Global surveillance, issues of privacy and the manipulation of identities and social practices through global information and communication technologies
  • Incivility
changes in the socio political system global intellectual and academic
Changes in the Socio-Political System (GLOBAL)/Intellectual and Academic
  • 1980s Postmodernism
  • Representations – it was understood that researchers/people created reality through their representational, textual and interpretive practices – the emergence of the discourse turn (text, action, sounds, images) associated with Foucault and Derrida
  • How to (Re)present information The merging of social science and the humanities
  • Politics of doing research
  • Ethics and doing funded research
  • Purpose – What is the purpose of the social sciences?
changes in the socio political system global1
Changes in the Socio-Political System (GLOBAL)
  • Need for deeper and rich understanding of social and political life
  • Need for in-depth Examination of Phenomena (greater insights and depth) - Provide thick descriptions of a phenomena
  • Extracts meaning from data
  • Examine and answer complex questions that can be impossible with quantitative methods
  • Need for a tool which explore new areas of social and political life
  • Need for a holistic approach understanding/interpreting and explaining social life build new theories – new association between variables and deconstruct existing ones.
changes revolutions in the nature of qualitative research
Changes/Revolutions in the nature of Qualitative Research
  • The emergence of new theories
    • Hermeneutics
    • Critical Inquiry
    • Feminism
    • Postmodernism
changes revolutions in the nature of qualitative research1
Changes/Revolutions in the nature of Qualitative Research
  • The emergence of new methodologies
    • Grounded theory
    • Heuristic inquiry
    • Action research
    • Discourse analysis/Critical Discourse Analysis
    • Feminist/Critical/Postcolonial and Postmodern Ethnography
changes in the nature of qualitative research
Changes in the nature of Qualitative Research
  • The emergence of new data collection and data analysis tools – to verify and make possible the reproduction of a research project – trustworthiness
  • Trustworthiness includes elements such as credibility, confirmability, transferability/Replicability (Lincoln and Guba, 1985).
  • Reflexivity
credibility
Credibility
  • Prolonged Engagement
  • Persistent Observation
  • Conduct peer consultations with colleagues – get their
  • interpretations of the data
  • Discuss issues such as the theoretical and accessible population, sampling frame and the actual sample, methodology, methods, the theoretical framework and the framing of the study
  • Use data (methods) triangulation
  • use of multiple methods
  • Use different data sources to study a phenomena
  • Member Checks
transferability and dependability can the research be replicated else where is it reliable
Transferability and DependabilityCan the research be replicated else where (is it reliable)?
  • Transferability or replicability is concerned with the readiness of both researchers and users of research findings to optimize the utilization of research elsewhere.
  • Such an undertaking is dependent on "solid descriptive data," or "thick description" (See Gertz Photocopy - docuspot) which the interview procedure for this study provided.
  • This was also facilitated through the use of the Audit Trail where the researcher thus establishes a trackable and documentable process (Lincoln and Guba, 1985).
  • Replicability was enhanced through the use of a Case Study Protocol and the Case Study Database (Refer to docuspot photocopy).
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Confirmability Are the findings a product of the focus of the inquiry and not the biases of the researcher?
  • Track data to their sources
  • Audit Trail
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