Main criticisms of qualitative research
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Subjectivity leads to procedural problems Replicability is very difficult Unreliable Researcher bias is built in and unavoidable In-depth, comprehensive approach to data gathering limits scope Labor intensive Time consuming Expensive Very unreliable

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Main criticisms of qualitative research

  • Subjectivity leads to procedural problems

  • Replicability is very difficult

  • Unreliable

  • Researcher bias is built in and unavoidable

  • In-depth, comprehensive approach to data gathering limits scope

  • Labor intensive

  • Time consuming

  • Expensive

  • Very unreliable

  • (See Haralambos Methodology Chapter)

Main Criticisms of Qualitative Research


Changes in the socio political system global
Changes in the Socio-Political System (GLOBAL)

  • Marketization and global capitalism

  • Problems of Gender identities

  • Unjust social relations - class

  • Problems of National identities

  • Imposed knowledge

  • The oppression of minorities

  • organized violence

  • The hegemonic ranslational institutions and the control of nation states and social actors

  • Global surveillance, issues of privacy and the manipulation of identities and social practices through global information and communication technologies

  • Incivility


Changes in the socio political system global intellectual and academic
Changes in the Socio-Political System (GLOBAL)/Intellectual and Academic

  • 1980s Postmodernism

  • Representations – it was understood that researchers/people created reality through their representational, textual and interpretive practices – the emergence of the discourse turn (text, action, sounds, images) associated with Foucault and Derrida

  • How to (Re)present information The merging of social science and the humanities

  • Politics of doing research

  • Ethics and doing funded research

  • Purpose – What is the purpose of the social sciences?


Changes in the socio political system global1
Changes in the Socio-Political System (GLOBAL) and Academic

  • Need for deeper and rich understanding of social and political life

  • Need for in-depth Examination of Phenomena (greater insights and depth) - Provide thick descriptions of a phenomena

  • Extracts meaning from data

  • Examine and answer complex questions that can be impossible with quantitative methods

  • Need for a tool which explore new areas of social and political life

  • Need for a holistic approach understanding/interpreting and explaining social life build new theories – new association between variables and deconstruct existing ones.


Changes revolutions in the nature of qualitative research
Changes/Revolutions in the nature of Qualitative Research and Academic

  • The emergence of new theories

    • Hermeneutics

    • Critical Inquiry

    • Feminism

    • Postmodernism


Changes revolutions in the nature of qualitative research1
Changes/Revolutions in the nature of Qualitative Research and Academic

  • The emergence of new methodologies

    • Grounded theory

    • Heuristic inquiry

    • Action research

    • Discourse analysis/Critical Discourse Analysis

    • Feminist/Critical/Postcolonial and Postmodern Ethnography


Changes in the nature of qualitative research
Changes in the nature of Qualitative Research and Academic

  • The emergence of new data collection and data analysis tools – to verify and make possible the reproduction of a research project – trustworthiness

  • Trustworthiness includes elements such as credibility, confirmability, transferability/Replicability (Lincoln and Guba, 1985).

  • Reflexivity


Trustworthiness
Trustworthiness and Academic


Credibility
Credibility and Academic

  • Prolonged Engagement

  • Persistent Observation

  • Conduct peer consultations with colleagues – get their

  • interpretations of the data

  • Discuss issues such as the theoretical and accessible population, sampling frame and the actual sample, methodology, methods, the theoretical framework and the framing of the study

  • Use data (methods) triangulation

  • use of multiple methods

  • Use different data sources to study a phenomena

  • Member Checks


Transferability and dependability can the research be replicated else where is it reliable
Transferability and Academicand DependabilityCan the research be replicated else where (is it reliable)?

  • Transferability or replicability is concerned with the readiness of both researchers and users of research findings to optimize the utilization of research elsewhere.

  • Such an undertaking is dependent on "solid descriptive data," or "thick description" (See Gertz Photocopy - docuspot) which the interview procedure for this study provided.

  • This was also facilitated through the use of the Audit Trail where the researcher thus establishes a trackable and documentable process (Lincoln and Guba, 1985).

  • Replicability was enhanced through the use of a Case Study Protocol and the Case Study Database (Refer to docuspot photocopy).


Confirmability and AcademicAre the findings a product of the focus of the inquiry and not the biases of the researcher?

  • Track data to their sources

  • Audit Trail


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