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Lesson 15.4: The Election of 1860. Today’s Essential Question: What were the political parties, platforms, candidates, issues, and outcome in the election of 1860?. Vocabulary. political party – political group organized to gain political power by getting its members elected to office

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Lesson 15.4: The Election of 1860

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Lesson 15 4 the election of 1860
Lesson 15.4: The Election of 1860

Today’s Essential Question: What were the political parties, platforms, candidates, issues, and outcome in the election of 1860?


Vocabulary
Vocabulary

  • political party – political group organized to gain political power by getting its members elected to office

  • platform – a political party’s statement of beliefs

  • candidate – person chosen by a political party as its contestant for a political office

  • issue – something people discuss or argue about

  • outcome – result; how an event or a contest turns out



What is a platform
What is a platform?

A platform is a political party’s statement of beliefs.



What we already learned
What We Already Learned

The Republican Party was formed in 1854, and was dedicated to stopping the spread of slavery into the territories.


What we already learned1
What We Already Learned

His debates with Stephen Douglas in 1858 made Abraham Lincoln a popular figure in the Republican Party.


What we already learned2
What We Already Learned

After John Brown attacked a federal arsenal to get weapons to start a slave rebellion . . .



The democratic party splinters
The Democratic Party Splinters make him out to be a hero.

  • At the Democratic party’s convention, Northern and Southern Democrats disagreed over the party’s platform.

  • The Southerners wanted a defense of slavery, but Northerners supported popular sovereignty.


The democratic party splinters1
The Democratic Party Splinters make him out to be a hero.

  • When the Northerners won the platform vote, 50 Southern delegates walked out of the convention.

  • Stephen A. Douglas was the leading contender for the party’s nomination as presidential candidate, but the remaining Southerners rejected him because he was so closely associated with popular sovereignty.


The republican convention
The Republican Convention make him out to be a hero.

  • New York’s William Seward was favored to win the nomination.


The republican convention1
The Republican Convention make him out to be a hero.

  • New York’s William Seward was favored to win the nomination.

  • Abraham Lincoln, a lesser-known candidate from Illinois, won a surprise victory.


Democrats still divided
Democrats Still Divided make him out to be a hero.

  • Northern Democrats nominated Douglas.


Democrats still divided1
Democrats Still Divided make him out to be a hero.

  • Northern Democrats nominated Douglas.

  • Southern Democrats chose Buchanan’s vice-president, John Breckinridge of Kentucky.


Democrats still divided2
Democrats Still Divided make him out to be a hero.

  • Northern Democrats nominated Douglas.

  • Southern Democrats chose Buchanan’s vice-president, John Breckinridge of Kentucky.

  • The Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell of Tennessee.


The candidates in the 1860 presidential election differed in their policies
The candidates in the 1860 presidential election differed in their policies.

  • Lincoln opposed slavery’s expansion into the territories.

  • Breckinridge wanted the federal government to protect slavery in every territory.

  • Douglas wanted the slavery question settled through popular sovereignty.

  • Bell simply wanted to preserve the Union.



Why did the democrats have two presidential candidates in 1860
Why did the Democrats have two presidential candidates in 1860?

  • It was too difficult for one candidate to do all the traveling necessary to win votes.

  • Southern Democrats wanted a defense of slavery, but Northern Democrats supported popular sovereignty.

  • They hoped that one of the two candidates would appeal to enough voters to win.

  • Most Northern Democrats were abolitionists and couldn’t get along with the Southerners.


Lesson 15 4 the election of 1860

Lincoln defeated Douglas in the North; Breckinridge carried most of the South. The North had more electoral votes than the South, so Lincoln won the election.


A republican victory
A Republican Victory most of the South. The North had more electoral votes than the South, so Lincoln won the election.

  • Lincoln had promised that he would do nothing to abolish slavery in the South.

  • Southerners were sure that he would ban slavery, and saw the Republican victory as a threat to the Southern way of life.


Get your whiteboards and markers ready1
Get your whiteboards and markers ready! most of the South. The North had more electoral votes than the South, so Lincoln won the election.


What four parties had presidential candidates in the 1860 election
What most of the South. The North had more electoral votes than the South, so Lincoln won the election.four parties had presidential candidates in the 1860 election?

Northern Democrats

Southern Democrats

Know-Nothing Party

Republicans

Constitutional Union Party

Free Soil Party

Choose FOUR parties!


22 who were the four presidential candidates in the 1860 election
22. Who were the most of the South. The North had more electoral votes than the South, so Lincoln won the election.four presidential candidates in the 1860 election?

Stephen Douglas

John Crittenden

Abraham Lincoln

John Bell

John C. Fremont

John Breckinridge

Choose FOUR names!


Match the candidates in the 1860 presidential election with their policies
Match the candidates in the 1860 presidential election with their policies.

  • Lincoln

  • Breckinridge

  • Douglas

  • Bell

  • Wanted to preserve the Union, regardless of slavery

  • Opposed slavery’s expansion into the territories

  • Wanted the federal government to protect slavery in every territory

  • Wanted to settle the slavery question through popular sovereignty


Why did the south secede
Why did the South secede? their policies.

  • There were many factors beyond slavery that led to the secession of the South.

  • Differences in culture

  • Differences in Economy

  • Differences in Political Philosophy

  • Diminished Influence

  • Overestimation of the South’s Importance

  • Lincoln’s Election


Differences in culture
Differences in Culture their policies.

Aristocratic and stratified in the South vs. democratic and fluid in the North


Differences in economy
Differences in Economy their policies.

Slave labor in the South vs. free labor in the North


Differences in economy1
Differences in Economy their policies.

Agrarian South vs. industrial North


Differences in political philosophy
Differences in Political Philosophy their policies.

Compact theory vs. permanent union


Diminished political and economic influence
Diminished Political and Economic Influence their policies.

The growing population & wealth of the North made the South feel less important than it once had.


Overestimation of the south s economic importance
Overestimation of the South's Economic Importance their policies.

Belief that the North’s economy could not survive without Southern cotton.


Lincoln s election
Lincoln's election their policies.

Viewed by Southerners as a threat to slavery


Southern states secede
Southern States Secede their policies.

  • Secessionists argued that since the states had voluntarily joined the Union, they had the right to leave it.

  • This was the compact theory of government that had been supported by Southerners for generations.


Southern states secede1
Southern States Secede their policies.

  • On December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede.

  • Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida followed within six weeks.


The confederate states of america formed
The Confederate States of America Formed their policies.

  • February 1861 – Jefferson Davis elected president

  • The Confederate Constitution supported states’ rights and protected slavery in the Confederacy.

  • How would the Union government respond?




B ask a who was jefferson davis
B ask A: Who their policies.was Jefferson Davis?

Jefferson Davis was the first President of the Confederate States of America.



23 how did white southerners view lincoln s election as president1
23. How did white Southerners view Lincoln’s election as president?

They viewed it with laughter, since they had just seceded.

They saw it as a as a threat to slavery and to their way of life.

To them, it was an example of popular sovereignty.

They saw it as a crooked election, with thousands of phony votes cast.



24 how did the southern states react to the election of president lincoln1
24. How did the Southern states react to the election of President Lincoln?

They beginning impeachment proceedings immediately.

They threatened to withhold their tariff duties until he resigned.

They seceded from the Union.

They refused to send their representatives to Congress that year.



25 how did southerners justify secession1
25. How did Southerners justify secession? President Lincoln?

They had not voted for Lincoln, so they did not recognize him as president.

Since the states had voluntarily joined the Union, they also had the right to leave the Union.

Lincoln's election had been illegal, so they didn't have to accept the result.

Lincoln had announced his plans to abolish slavery, so they had a right to secede in defense of their culture.

The Crittenden Compromise had included a secession clause, which they now were fulfilling.


The union responds to secession
The Union Responds to Secession President Lincoln?

  • Buchanan argued against secession: the federal government was sovereign, secession threatened majority rule.

  • Southerners complained that Northerners were antislavery bullies.

  • Northerners accused Southerners of ignoring the rules of democracy.


Efforts to compromise fail
Efforts to Compromise Fail President Lincoln?

The Crittenden Plan:

  • re-establish Missouri Compromise line

  • permit slavery in the territories until statehood

  • other protections of slavery and the slave trade

John J. Crittenden


Efforts to compromise fail1
Efforts to Compromise Fail President Lincoln?

Political leaders in both the North and the South worked on the Crittenden plan in the hope that it would keep the Union together, but it failed to pass in Congress.


Lincoln s inauguration
Lincoln’s Inauguration President Lincoln?

Lincoln assured the South that he had no intention of abolishing slavery, but spoke forcefully against secession.


Lesson 15 4 the election of 1860

“We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battle-field and patriot grave, to every living heart and hearthstone, all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.”


As president lincoln wanted no invasion but would not abandon government forts in the south
As President, Lincoln wanted no invasion, but would not abandon government forts in the South.



Get your whiteboards and markers ready3
Get your whiteboards and markers ready! soon need to be resupplied.


Lesson 15 4 the election of 1860
26. What message did President Lincoln try to give to the Southern states in in his inaugural address?


Lesson 15 4 the election of 1860
26. What message did President Lincoln try to give to the Southern states in in his inaugural address?

Argument that the compact theory did not support secession

Assurances to the South that he would not abolish slavery

Strongly statement against secession

Threats to use military force against the South if it did not return to the Union at once

A promise never to keep slavery out of the territories


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