Lesson 15.4: The Election of 1860. Today’s Essential Question: What were the political parties, platforms, candidates, issues, and outcome in the election of 1860?. Vocabulary. political party – political group organized to gain political power by getting its members elected to office
Today’s Essential Question: What were the political parties, platforms, candidates, issues, and outcome in the election of 1860?
A platform is a political party’s statement of beliefs.
The Republican Party was formed in 1854, and was dedicated to stopping the spread of slavery into the territories.
His debates with Stephen Douglas in 1858 made Abraham Lincoln a popular figure in the Republican Party.
After John Brown attacked a federal arsenal to get weapons to start a slave rebellion . . .
Southerners were horrified when some Northerners seemed to make him out to be a hero.
Lincoln defeated Douglas in the North; Breckinridge carried most of the South. The North had more electoral votes than the South, so Lincoln won the election.
Constitutional Union Party
Free Soil Party
Choose FOUR parties!
John C. Fremont
Choose FOUR names!
Aristocratic and stratified in the South vs. democratic and fluid in the North
Slave labor in the South vs. free labor in the North
Agrarian South vs. industrial North
Compact theory vs. permanent union
The growing population & wealth of the North made the South feel less important than it once had.
Belief that the North’s economy could not survive without Southern cotton.
Viewed by Southerners as a threat to slavery
Jefferson Davis was the first President of the Confederate States of America.
They viewed it with laughter, since they had just seceded.
They saw it as a as a threat to slavery and to their way of life.
To them, it was an example of popular sovereignty.
They saw it as a crooked election, with thousands of phony votes cast.
They beginning impeachment proceedings immediately.
They threatened to withhold their tariff duties until he resigned.
They seceded from the Union.
They refused to send their representatives to Congress that year.
They had not voted for Lincoln, so they did not recognize him as president.
Since the states had voluntarily joined the Union, they also had the right to leave the Union.
Lincoln's election had been illegal, so they didn't have to accept the result.
Lincoln had announced his plans to abolish slavery, so they had a right to secede in defense of their culture.
The Crittenden Compromise had included a secession clause, which they now were fulfilling.
The Crittenden Plan:
John J. Crittenden
Political leaders in both the North and the South worked on the Crittenden plan in the hope that it would keep the Union together, but it failed to pass in Congress.
Lincoln assured the South that he had no intention of abolishing slavery, but spoke forcefully against secession.
“We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battle-field and patriot grave, to every living heart and hearthstone, all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.”
Argument that the compact theory did not support secession
Assurances to the South that he would not abolish slavery
Strongly statement against secession
Threats to use military force against the South if it did not return to the Union at once
A promise never to keep slavery out of the territories